Dallas Business Consultant Elijah ClarkDallas Business Consultant Elijah Clark

Good Resources for Innovative Technology in Marketing

Foxman, E. R., & Kilcoyne, P. (1993). Information technology, marketing practice, and consumer privacy: Ethical issues. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing. 12(1), 106-119. doi: 10.1007/s10660-007-9000-y

This article Foxman and Kilcoyne (1993) discussed the privacy and customer behavior in the electronic market. The author explains that there is a growing concern from consumers about their privacy when dealing with state and federal government agencies and businesses. Consumers believe that their personal information is being computerized and sold without permission. They believe that companies should ask for permission before storing and selling their personal information.

Online consumer information, credit cards, billing details, and demographics are being collected, bought, and sold across the marketing industry. Furthermore, many consumers are unaware that their information is passed around. Consumers agree that the ethics behind collecting the information and sharing it is morally wrong. In working to understand how to resolve the privacy concern, there is debate on who owns the consumer information. Businesses feel that they own the information if they collect it or purchase from another business. They see nothing wrong with collecting the information considering the data allows them to produce better marketing services to the community. Consumers feel that the data belongs to them and should only be used with their permission.

A study within this article evaluates experimental situations in how consumer behavior is being influenced by websites and the personal information being requested from the consumer is affected by the message. The study examines to understand whether customers are manipulated into disclosing personal information through online methods. The results conclude that the consumers’ behavior is significantly impacted by their misunderstanding and misinformation. The author believes that in order for the confusion to be resolved, marketers need to make privacy details clear and they must be commitment to maintaining an ethical behavior when dealing with consumer privacy.

Privacy is a great concern within my industry. In marketing, we not only collect user data from potential customers, but we also collect it from current customers so that we can create the best possible marketing approach. Oftentimes, I have done and seen businesses collect user data and use it to their advantage for producing marketing campaigns. Understanding the legality behind consumer information handling is something that marketers must take seriously. This article is informative in explaining the reasons for protecting and clearly stating privacy policies. Consumers are unlikely to trust a company that shares their personal information without their consent.

 

Peattie, K. (2000). The New Marketing Era: Marketing to the Imagination in a Technology-Driven World/Marketing the Unknown: Developing Market Strategies for Technical Innovations. Journal Of Marketing Management16(5), 529-532.  Retrieved from the Walden Library databases

The author explores how technology has no affect on the behavior of the people who buy, use, and interact with the technology. It explains that marketing is not shaped by what the technology can do, but marketing instead centers on what the consumer will accept, understand, and want. Peattie (2000) further examined the changes that marketing is undergoing because of new technology. From the perspective of the author, marketing is psychological and technology will not change society considering it has no real affect on human emotions, drives, and capacities.

The author details that there are three changes that marketing must undergo in order to create successful strategies. The first is to move away from market research and instead look toward being able to interpret information extracted from the consumers through databases of information. The second change is moving away from traditional advertising and placing more attention on social media for communication. The final stage is to stop looking at marketing as a means of mass markets and move toward building a personal relationship with consumers through media outlets.

I enjoy the different perspective that technological tools used by consumers are not as important as whether or not they desire to use them. I find this relevant within the marketing industry particularly because marketing focuses on understanding the consumers’ desires and being able to fulfill them through brand messaging. The author explains that consumers choose products because of their feelings. This information can be valuable for someone within the marketing industry. As for the author’s perspective that technology does not influence emotions and direction, I disagree with this. To say that a television commercial has no effect on consumers’ buying habits, which are generally led by emotions, is to say that advertising has no real purpose.

 

Erragcha, N., & Romdhane, R. (2014). Social Networks as Marketing Tools. Journal Of Internet Banking & Commerce19(1), 1-12. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases

This research examines how the Internet effects people in their daily lives and how it is causing challenges for businesses due to the openness of social media. The author discusses how social media has opened a door for consumers to express their concerns to companies and this method of communication has facilitated interaction between business and consumer. This allows consumers to enjoy having power of opinion and change, but companies are feeling challenged because of the direct open forums of communication.

The author states that users are huge factors in generating brand awareness. This is due to users promoting the brand as well as creating content such as comments, questions and answers on forum boards, and adding to their custom profiles on social media accounts. Because of technology and social media, the consumer has helped enrich and improve company activities as well as add value to the brand image. The author goes further into details of what the five pillars of social media consist of. These pillars are participation, openness, conversation, community, and interconnection. The author believes that there has been a shift from marketing to interactive marketing. Marketing must move away from traditional transactional marketing to facilitator marketing which focuses on businesses sharing knowledge with the consumers and being open to consumers sharing knowledge with the business. The conclusion of this method will give power to the consumer, but will promote positive sales and satisfied customers.

This article holds valuable information to my industry considering marketing is all about the customer. The research explains that marketers should listen to consumers if they want to be successful. Marketers should never ignore the customers concerns and should allow their voice to matter. By doing this, the business can create a strong bond, a lasting relationship, and a brand promoter within the consumer.

 

Lipnická D., Ďaďo J. (2013). Marketing Audit and Factors Influencing Its Use in Practice of Companies (From an Expert Point of View). Journal of Competitiveness, 5 (4), 26-42.  doi: 10.7441/joc.2013.04.02

The study analyzes research conducted through the Delphi method. The research included two rounds of questionnaires obtained by the opinions of sixteen marketing experts. The research was carried out during the months of October and November 2012. The sixteen marketing experts were individually contacted by email and those experts were used to ensure research validity. The evaluation of the research was to determine the main factors and barriers influencing the results of a marketing audit. The results of the study show that marketing audits are a factor in company success.

The author believes that in order to conduct a comprehensive marketing audit, the method should have four major characteristics; comprehensive, independence from decision making managers, systematic, and the audit should be carried our periodically. Audits help companies with reviewing their marketing strategies, which can help improve business performance. A marketing audit can improve marketing management and problems. This is done by assessing and evaluating the company’s marketing ability, effectiveness, threats, and opportunities. The author explains that a marketing audit can be an important tool in discovering potential risks within the company’s activities.

Within the marketing industry, understanding how or why to market is a key component to creating a successful marketing plan. In creating a marketing strategy, marketers do comprehensive research and studying of consumers, and creating a marketing audit would be conducting a similar type of research on the current structure of the businesses and its marketing efficiency.

Resources for Understanding Occupational/Organizational Stress

Stafyla, A., Kaltsidou, G., & Spyridis, N. (2013). Gender differences in work stress, related to organizational conflicts and organizational constrains: An empirical research. International Journal Of Economic Sciences & Applied Research, 6(1), 91-101.

The author of this study explains that stress is normal and routine within workplaces. The study was conducted of 231 Greek adults within different workplaces, using a poll research to collect data. The average age of the 231 volunteer Greek adults was 37.5 years. 94 respondents were men, and 137 were women. The study was done to examine ways in which different gender types witness stress. The test employees completed a questionnaire with two different scales of measurement that consisted of 15 questions. The results of the study found that men express stress differently than women. Men express work stress in an organization constraint scale and not just interpersonal. Men are involved in more disagreements and treated with rudeness more often than women. In addition, men have a more difficult time completing work task due to incorrect instructions, inadequate equipment, or lack of information. Based on this information, the author concludes that how organizations function may be the differentiator between genders and how they express stress.

Considering the study was conducted during an economic crisis, it may have been best if the study were not completed within the workplace as there may have been increased fear and stress of a layoff. Another limitation to this study was that there was a lack of questionnaire validation of the American translation into Greek. In addition, the study was not conducted by analyzing workplace satisfaction and workplace stress or by considering work ethic, reward, and whether or not employees were regarded for their efforts. Monitoring the work ethic would help in understanding individual responses to work demands and organization attachments, aspirations, dedications, and expectations. The study failed to include information for understanding the femininity and masculinity type of individuals outside of gender. The study should be examined again in the future considering these setbacks.
The authors’ findings could be beneficial in understanding and reacting to different gender types within organizations. Based on similar stress studies, this study is unique in identifying gender-specific stressors and concerns. The research can be useful in understanding welfare issues and stress prevention. Considering men and women are naturally different in nature, this study was successful in identifying whether or not their differences would affect their stress levels in the workplace. A future study could further analyze gender stress within an organization by including the relationship between workplace satisfaction and stress levels.

 

Mirela, B., & Madalina-Adriana, C. (2011). Organizational stress and its impact on work performance. Annals Of The University Of Oradea, Economic Science Series, 333-337.

This study examines how an economic crisis affects managers and entrepreneurs’ stress levels. The author explains that work related stress is a growing concern, and excessive stress can influence productivity. The study included Romanian managers and entrepreneurs from Bihor County. The research method used was an online questionnaire, which included 75 managers and entrepreneurs. 40% of the respondents were entrepreneurs, and 60% were managers at all levels. In addition, 40% of the respondents were women and 60% were men. Ages ranged between 18 – 64 years with 73% of the respondents being within the 18 – 24 age range. Each participant answered 35 structured questions about stress. The conclusion of the study was that organizational stress is produced by a multitude of outside influences including social status, family, relationships, and personal problems. 85% of the respondents considered work to be the main factor in their stress lives.

The study can be used to develop professional skills of managers and entrepreneurs. By promoting their skills, leaders can be prepared to adapt to new technologies in the organization. The study failed to examine the social status, education, and family matters of the respondents. The study also did not mention the work environment, whether or not the work was fast or slow paced, external stress factors, how the respondents interact with one another, or how the respondents perceived stress and their work task. Knowing this information would show how different situations influence respondent’s perception of stress in their organization.

The authors did consider many factors during their study, and the results were informative in highlighting how common stress is within organizations. Moreover, the results were impressive at presenting the number of respondents who came to the realization that they had no measure of combating their stress. By further demographically segmenting users, the study would show better results that could be filtered by the respondent’s social status and personal stress factors. The study was successful at examining stress from a different perspective of leadership type versus employee outlook. Considering leaders have different stressors than employees, this information can be useful in creating or improving leaders’ health and satisfaction within the workplace.

 

Yong, M., Nasterlack, M., Pluto, R., Lang, S., & Oberlinner, C. (2013). Occupational stress perception and its potential impact on work ability. Work, 46(3), 347-354. doi:10.3233/WOR-121556

The study was conducted to examine perceived employee stress levels with different occupations measured by the Work Ability Index (WAI). The study was done to investigate the impact of stress and workability. The study was completed through a survey questionnaire among 867 volunteer participants in Ludwigshafen, Germany. 653 of the participants completed the 38 close-ended questionnaires, which included questions directed at the individuals perception of safety in the workplace, health status, frequency of stress, job demands, time pressure, and work life balance. The study showed that occupational stress was perceived different within occupational groups. While some participants felt stress from health concerns, others felt stress tension from time pressure, and work life balance. Perceived occupational stress did show to have an impact on WAI.

A concern with the study is that the demographics of the users may have had an influence on the results. Among the 653 workers included in the analysis, 11% were managers, 39% skilled worked and 50% frontline operators. 80% of the managers and professionals were 40 and over in age, and only 20% were women in administration and 10% in management. Combined with additional studies, the results have been inconclusive, and this may be attributed to the employee’s occupational status. The study failed to mention the hours worked by respondents, the social status, lifestyle, or if they had health issues that may influence the results. Considering the study was given to only volunteers, rather than random selection, the results were likely not as effective or reliable.

The authors are experienced leaders and educators with previously published work on a similar organizational stress subject that focuses on occupational stress perception and its impact on employee’s health. The research and study done by the authors did present good material, particularly in examining the respondent’s perception of stress. However, without properly examining the lifestyle, and social status of the respondents, it would be difficult to validate the points within this study. Nonetheless, because of the vast number of respondents, the study was successful with comparing personal pressures, and perception of the respondents to organizational stress.

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