Dallas Business Consultant Elijah ClarkDallas Business Consultant Elijah Clark

Keys to Effective Team Leadership

Nearly 80 percent of Fortune 500 companies use some form of team-based structures within their daily operations to help in organizing work (Magni, & Maruping, 2013). A majority of employees are involved in teamwork as a part of their daily job duties and responsibilities (Magni, & Maruping, 2013). Leaders are responsible for broadening and elevating team members’ goals as well as creating team confidence (Ishikawa, 2012). The leader is also responsible for managing team conflicts, building relationships, engaging members, and taking responsibility for projects (Barnwell, Nedrick, Rudolph, Sesay, & Wellen, 2014). Leaders have a considerable impact on team members’ attitudes toward their jobs, team climate, and performance (Ishikawa, 2012). Team members must learn to self-direct and execute multiple tasks concurrently (Barnwell, Nedrick, Rudolph, Sesay, & Wellen, 2014). A team leader should begin management by setting a meeting with team members and have them introduce themselves to one another. This will allow members to build relationships and get to know one another on a personal level and in a comfortable setting (Barnwell, Nedrick, Rudolph, Sesay, & Wellen, 2014). As a leader, my role would be to establish a team that can work efficiently to satisfy stakeholders, customers, and team members (Barnwell, Nedrick, Rudolph, Sesay, & Wellen, 2014). I would build my team based on their strengths, and past performances. Conflict in time management and task priorities can affect the task schedule (Barnwell, Nedrick, Rudolph, Sesay, & Wellen, 2014; Ishikawa, 2012). Without proper leadership, there could be concern of power struggle within the group as new stronger members would likely take the lead role and potentially ignore the lower status individuals’ suggestions and ideas (Barnwell, Nedrick, Rudolph, Sesay, & Wellen, 2014; Hoch, & Morgeson, 2014). I would need to not only manage the needs of the team, but also of the individual members.

Within a team setting, team members should be able to react effectively to unanticipated, non-routine, and unstructured situations in order to achieve team objectives (Ishikawa, 2012). To manage an effective team, the leader should create a structure that allows for good and efficient communication, shared responsibilities, and proper goal and time management. Sharing leadership task can help build trust and cooperation among team members. By sharing task, members gain strength, motivation, and encouragement (Hoch, & Morgeson, 2014; Ishikawa, 2012). Time is paramount within a team setting. Being able to overcome barriers by reacting to task, unexpected issues, and delivering positive results are essential to achieving efficient outcomes (Ishikawa, 2012).

Project teams are composed of individual team members who have varying viewpoints. This is heightened in virtual teams where members are from different locations and with different cultures, beliefs, interest, time separation, distance, and standards (Barnwell, Nedrick, Rudolph, Sesay, & Wellen, 2014; Ishikawa, 2012). To keep up morale for virtual team members, I would have to remain in touch on a regular basis and build rapport with team members. It would be my responsibility to motivate members via telephone calls, and video conferencing, which could help decrease member isolation (Barnwell, Nedrick, Rudolph, Sesay, & Wellen, 2014). When working in a virtual team, culture and diversity can affect how the team functions (Barnwell, Nedrick, Rudolph, Sesay, & Wellen, 2014). Leaders interacting in diverse teams will be more susceptible to volatile relationships because of potential cultural misunderstandings. This is because diverse virtual team members can hold very different assumptions about mental modes and social interaction (Ayman, & Korabik, 2010; Barnwell, Nedrick, Rudolph, Sesay, & Wellen, 2014). In a virtual setting, the leader should create and manage clear goals, considering virtual team members are better led when goals and direction are clear (Barnwell, Nedrick, Rudolph, Sesay, & Wellen, 2014; Hoch, & Morgeson, 2014).

Virtual teams may have an issue of technology in addition to communication barriers (Balthazard, Waldman, & Warren, 2009; Barnwell, Nedrick, Rudolph, Sesay, & Wellen, 2014; Ishikawa, 2012). Having strong technical skills allows the member to minimize the need of outside technical assistance. Virtual team members should have high self-esteem so that they can support themselves through motivation and limit disrupting the other team members (Barnwell, Nedrick, Rudolph, Sesay, & Wellen, 2014). Reaching individual goals can be daunting, so being goal oriented will allow members to motivate themselves to go above and beyond when necessary to achieve their objectives (Barnwell, Nedrick, Rudolph, Sesay, & Wellen, 2014). Virtual teams and projects create increased response time for demands, greater productivity, and the option to work around the clock (Barnwell, Nedrick, Rudolph, Sesay, & Wellen, 2014; Ishikawa, 2012). However, team members who are located more than 50 feet away from one another, have a significantly decreased frequency of communication (Ishikawa, 2012). Being near one another, creates better circumstances for team members to communicate about issues that affect projects (Balthazard, Waldman, & Warren, 2009). Communication is a significant factor in team environments considering it is essential in helping gather information (Balthazard, Waldman, & Warren, 2009; Ishikawa, 2012). To overcome barriers, the team leader should influence members to have good technical skills, high self-esteem, be goal oriented, and not be afraid of friendly debate and admitting to mistakes (Barnwell, Nedrick, Rudolph, Sesay, & Wellen, 2014).
Credits

Ayman, R., & Korabik, K. (2010). Leadership. American Psychologist, 65(3), 157-170. doi:10.1037/a0018806

Balthazard, P. A., Waldman, D. A., & Warren, J. E. (2009). Predictors of the emergence of transformational leadership in virtual decision teams. Leadership Quarterly, 20(5), 651–663. doi:10.1016/j.leaqua.2009.06.008

Barnwell, D., Nedrick, S., Rudolph, E., Sesay, M., & Wellen, W. (2014). Leadership of International and Virtual Project Teams. International Journal Of Global Business, 7(2), 1-8.

Hoch, J. E., & Morgeson, F. P. (2014). Vertical and shared leadership processes: Exploring team leadership dynamics. Academy Of Management Annual Meeting Proceedings, 1607-1612. doi:10.5465/AMBPP.2014.96

Ishikawa, J. (2012). Transformational leadership and gatekeeping leadership: The roles of norm for maintaining consensus and shared leadership in team performance. Asia Pacific Journal Of Management, 29(2), 265-283. doi:10.1007/s10490-012-9282-z

Magni, M., & Maruping, L. M. (2013). Sink or Swim: Empowering Leadership and Overload in Teams’ Ability to Deal with the Unexpected. Human Resource Management, 52(5), 715-739. doi:10.1002/hrm.21561

Taxonomy of Leadership Theories

Taxonomy of Leadership Theories

in my next blogs, I have reviewed and evaluated the nature of leadership styles and their theories. My post summarizes findings from research on authentic leadership, leader-member exchange, servant leadership, and situational leadership. Examples of a servant leader and situational leader were integrated as a framework to show how the different theories can be viewed in a real case scenario.

Researchers have discovered that, by serving and supporting organizational members, leaders can create a positive and productive environment (Cubero, 2007; Avolio, Walumbwa, & Weber, 2009; Liden, Wayne, Liao, & Meuser, 2014). Leadership style plays a role in followers’ perceptions of an organization. The leadership style is often more important that the leaders opinion (Cubero, 2007). By satisfying followers through listening to their needs, adapting to their situation, creating a positive exchange, and building trust, leaders and followers together will have the tools needed to create and innovate within the organization (Hassanzadeh, 2014)

The study of leadership spans more than 100 years McCleskey (2014). Leadership has gained attention of researchers worldwide (Northouse, 2013). Leadership style influences followers, and it is an important component of a leader (Cubero, 2007). Leadership research has conceptualized leadership as being an extraordinary ability of certain individuals (McCleskey, 2014). My post will focus on four concepts of leadership: servant, authentic, situation, and leader-manager exchange. The next blog post begins with authentic leadership.

 

 

Servant Leadership

Servant leadership was first written about within the writings of Robert K. Geenleaf (Northouse, 2013, p. 219). According to Avolio, Walumbwa, and Weber (2009), the characteristics of a servant leader including: the ability to listen to the needs of others, having empathy, awareness, persuasion, stewardship, and building community (Avolio, Walumbwa, & Weber, 2009). Like authentic leadership, servant leadership includes either implicit or explicit identification of the role of leader self-awareness (Avolio & Gardner, 2005). A servant leader is considered a leader who behaves ethically and will motivate followers without having ulterior motives to first satisfy their personal desires. This type of leader prioritizes the needs of their followers and is more concerned about the success and wellbeing of others. Servant leaders are humble leaders who desire to stimulate strong relationships with their followers by encouragement. This servant approach creates a positive work environment and value for the organization (Sendjaya, & Sarros, 2002; Liden, Wayne, Liao, & Meuser, 2014; Northouse, 2013, p. 248). Leaders who provide emotional support to followers that desire to reach their full potential, can be seen as role models. Servant leaders are linked to followers’ outcomes including organizational attitudes, and performance. Servant leaders are respected and admired for their integrity, trust, and concern for others. Core requirements of a servant leader are empathy and behaving ethically (Liden, Wayne, Liao, & Meuser, 2014).

The desire of a servant leader is not only to take on the role of a servant, but to also take on the nature of a servant. A servant leader will seek to grow and transform their followers (Sendjaya, & Sarros, 2002). As a servant leader provides guidance and direction for their followers, they create what is known as a serving culture. A serving culture can be defined as a group that focuses on behaviors that produce benefits for others. A store manager that engages in being a servant leader is an example of a serving culture. As a servant leader, the manager promotes a culture that inspires to help members and learn the behavioral expectations. The store manager will be an example for the employees, and the employees will learn how to serve others as they follow and admire the manager’s leadership. An employee, follower, or member of the serving culture, must feel cared for, respected, trusted, and supported by the leader. If the leadership is effective, it will enhance the follower’s identification. As employees identify with their store managers leadership, they will identify with the store. If the identification with the store is high, the employees will value the organization and feel a sense of unity with their coworkers. This bond will inspire strong work ethics and better performance (Liden, Wayne, Liao, & Meuser, 2014).

Entrepreneurship and Leadership

Taxonomy of Leadership

By serving and supporting employees, you can create a positive and productive business environment. As a business owner, your leadership style plays a significant role in the success of your business and your employees’ perceptions of the business. By satisfying employees through listening to their needs, adapting to their situations, creating a positive exchange, and building trust, you will have the support needed to create and innovate within your business which is helpful in motivating employees and generating positive customer relationships.

Entrepreneurship

The elements of entrepreneurship include an appetite for risk and the ability to spot opportunities. The propensity to take financial and career oriented risks are often attributed to entrepreneurs. However, while entrepreneurs generally take risk involving business opportunities, they must also be innovators and willing to continually take risks that challenge the status quo.

As a business owner, you must be both an entrepreneur and an innovator to remain relevant within your industry. An innovative entrepreneur is more likely to challenge assumptions due to what is known as creative intelligence which enables discovery by engaging both sides of the brain. While your entrepreneur side may know what decisions need to be made, the innovator in you understands how to make them work for a purpose. If you don’t produce or motivate innovation within your business, you will eventually fall prey to businesses that do.

Management

Managing your business effectively involves more than meaning well and supporting popular causes. The functions of being a manager are planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. As a manager, your role is to cope with complexity and bring a degree of order and consistency to the business at hand. Exhibiting leadership traits means not only influencing others but also doing so in a manner that enables your business to attain its goals.

Leadership and management are two distinctive, yet complementary, systems of action. Each has its own function and characteristics, and both are necessary for success in an increasingly complex and volatile business environment. Of course, not everyone can be good at both leading and managing. Some people have the capacity to become excellent managers, but not strong leaders. Others have great leadership potential but have great difficulty becoming strong managers.

Conclusion of Leadership Theories

My four latest blog post (authentic leadership, situational leadership, servant leadership, leader member exchange) have evaluated the nature of leadership styles and their theories. Servant leadership theory has suggested that servant leaders are leaders who naturally have a desire to serve first and aspire others to lead. Leader-member exchange theories suggest that a mutual exchange between leader and follower can produce loyal and committed relationships. Authentic leadership has promoted the notion that leaders should be self-aware, honest, and transparent. A Situational leader theory suggests that leadership roles vary, and each unique situation needs a unique solution. In order to inspire, innovative, and produce creativity within an organization, leaders should be aware and mindful of their followers’ perception of them. Each of these theories focuses on building trust through a mutually beneficial relationship between leaders and followers.

 

Credits for blogs

Avolio, B., & Gardner, W. (2005). Authentic leadership development: getting to the root of positive forms of leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 16, 315-338. doi:10.1016/j.leaqua.2005.03.001

Avolio, B. J., Walumbwa, F. O., & Weber, T. J. (2009). Leadership: current theories , research, and future directions. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 421–449.  doi:10.1177/0149206310393520

Cubero, C. G. (2007). Situational leadership and persons with disabilities. Work29(4), 351-356. Retrieved from

Fred O. Walumbwa, Bruce J. Avolio, William L. Gardner, Tara S. Wernsing, and Suzanne J. Peterson. (2008). Authentic Leadership: Development and Validation of a Theory-Based Measure†. Journal of Management. doi:10.1177/0149206307308913

Graeff, C. L. (1997). Evolution of situational leadership theory: A critical review. The Leadership Quarterly, 8(2), 153-170. doi:10.1016/S1048-9843(97)90014-X

Graen, G.B. and Uhl-Bien, M. (1995). Relationship-Based Approach to Leadership: Development and Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory of Leadership over 25 Years: Applying a Multi-Level Multi-Domain Perspective. Leadership Quarterly, 6, 219-247. doi: 10.1016/1048-9843(95)90036-5

Hassanzadeh, J. F. (2014). Leader-member Exchange and Creative Work Involvement: The Importance of Knowledge Sharing. Iranian Journal Of Management Studies7(2), 391-412. Retrieved from http://ijms.ut.ac.ir/

Klenke, K. (2007). Authentic leadership: A self, leader, and spiritual identity perspective. International Journal of Leadership Studies, 3(1), 68-97. Retrieved from http://www.regent.edu

Liden, R.C., Wayne, S.J., Liao, C., & Meuser, J.D. (2014). Servant leadership and serving culture: Influence on individual and unit performance. Academy of Management Journal, 57, 1434-1452. doi:10.5465/amj.2013.0034

McCleskey, J. A. (2014). Situational, Transformational, and Transactional Leadership and Leadership Development. Journal Of Business Studies Quarterly5(4), 117-130. Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu

Northouse, P.G. (2013). Leadership: Theory and practice (6th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications

Sendjaya, S., & Sarros, J. C. (2002). Servant leadership: Its origin, development, and application in organizations. Journal of Leadership and Organization Studies, 9(2), 57-64. doi: 10.1177/107179190200900205

The Role of Leadership in Shaping Organizational Culture

In this blog, I investigated how the role of leadership effects organizational health, culture, and follower perception. I further evaluated how the style of leadership can influence employee attitude and productivity. It has been found that leaders can be developed from within organizations and if leaders can learn to use their leadership powers for positive growth, it could produce a healthy organizational culture. Stress within organizations can lead to low productivity and lack of work efficiency. In addition, leaders without ethics tend to create stressful, unhealthy work environments. In order to maintain a healthy organization, businesses should select leaders that can motive followers, create positive change, and build organizational trust and commitment.

The Role of Leadership in Shaping Organizational Culture

The study of leadership spans more than 100 years and has recently begun gaining attention worldwide by researchers (McCleskey, 2014; Northouse, 2013, p. 1). The style of leadership plays a role in followers’ perceptions of an organization. The style approach can be used as a way in determining how leaders approach and manage their followers and subordinates (Northouse, 2013, p. 75). An effective leader will create an environment in which followers trust their leader to make the best decisions (Maner, & Mead, 2010). To create a healthy organization, leaders can use their leadership style and power as ways to improve stability and create productively functioning followers (Maner, & Mead, 2010).

To maintain and improve morale within organizations, leaders can place importance on communication and stress prevention programs that provide solutions to ethical dilemmas (Chekwa, Ouhirra, Thomas, & Chukwuanu, 2014). Leadership is paramount in exhibiting organizational values that generate ethical orientation (Chekwa, Ouhirra, Thomas, & Chukwuanu, 2014). Research has discovered that leaders can create healthy organizational cultures by discovering and supporting organizational members (Avolio, Walumbwa, & Weber, 2009; Cubero, 2007; Liden, Wayne, Liao, & Meuser, 2014).

Unlike management, leadership is centered on having the ability to cope with change (Kotter, 2001). Leaders are considered visionary individuals who influence and motivate others to ensure that proper decisions are being made (Kotter, 2001; Lopez, 2014; Vroom & Jago, 2007). Moreover, a leader has the responsibility of making sure that the organization is able to attain its goals (Vroom & Jago, 2007). In an article by Church (2014), it is stated that leaders can be developed from within organizations. Through careful selection, encouragement, and nurturing, current employees with leadership potential can be developed into future leaders (Kotter, 2001: Vroom & Jago, 2007). Every leader has their own function and characteristics and all styles of leaders can be effective in creating a healthy organizational culture (Kotter, 2001; Vroom & Jago, 2007).

Leadership Styles

In comparing leadership styles, transactional, transformational, and situational leaders can be very effective in creating a healthy organizational environment. Transformational leaders are based on social exchange, transactional is focused on economic exchange, and situational leaders are dependent upon the situation (Ismail, Mohamad, Mohamed, Rafiuddin, & Zhen, 2010; McCleskey, 2014). Transactional leaders maintain day-to-day workflow by using rewards and incentives to motivate employees to perform their best (Northouse, 2013). Transformational leaders go beyond the day-to-day and can be seen as better leaders for groups and team building. Transformational leaders motivate followers by setting goals, using incentives, and promoting personal growth (Northouse, 2013). Situational leaders can be considered rational leaders, in the sense that they are most appropriate in situations that require a unique and rational understanding (McCleskey, 2014).

Implementing proper leadership is paramount for organizational success, considering leaders have a considerable impact on members’ attitudes toward their job and performance (Ishikawa, 2012; Kovjanic, Schuh, Jonas, Quaquebeke, & Dick, 2012). While there is no one leadership style that works for every situation (Cubero, 2007), in organizational teams, transformational leaders can be considered best suited for creating positive outcomes (Hallinger, 2003). Transformational leaders focus on the status quo, needs, and desires of the organization. In addition, transformational leaders desire to fully use the potential of their followers by going beyond social exchange (Hallinger, 2003). A transformational leader understands how to encourage and intellectually stimulate individual team members’ self-concept by promoting unique thinking (Kovjanic, Schuh, Jonas, Quaquebeke, & Dick, 2012; Whittington, Coker, Goodwin, Ickes, & Murray, 2009). With nearly 80 percent of companies using some form of team-based structures, creating a healthy team environment can be helpful in organizing work performance (Magni, & Maruping, 2013). Considering transformational leaders excel in elevating member confidence (Ishikawa, 2012; Magni, & Maruping, 2013), this style of leader could be just as affective in a team setting by managing team conflicts, building relationships, and engaging members (Barnwell, Nedrick, Rudolph, Sesay, & Wellen, 2014).

Transformational, transactional, and situational leadership styles are generally centralized around building trust between leaders and followers (Northouse, 2013). In building trust, all styles of leaderships are important predictors (Ismail, Mohamad, Mohamed, Rafiuddin, & Zhen, 2010). Leadership style has been linked to employee mood, performance, attitude, and organizational commitment (Ismail, Mohamad, Mohamed, Rafiuddin, & Zhen, 2010; Strang, Kuhnert, 2009). If effective, a healthy environment will flourish and foster positive growth within the organization by producing a quality bond between leader and follower (Ismail, Mohamad, Mohamed, Rafiuddin, & Zhen, 2010).

Leadership Power

In recent years, the study of analyzing leadership power has increased, and styles of leadership have been closely linked to leadership power (Schriesheim, Podsakoff, & Hinkin, 1991). The basis of power include; reward, coercion, legitimate, expert, referent, and informational (Northouse, 2013; Raven, 1993). The definition of leadership power according to Raven (1993) is, “the possibility of inducing forces’ of a certain magnitude on another person.” Leaders are considered an influencing agent of power over their followers (Raven, 1993).

Leaders who are endowed with power can typically become corruptive (Maner, & Mead, 2010). Instead of using their power for positive member growth, they may be tempted to use their power to self-serve personal desires (Maner, & Mead, 2010). In this sense, they are using their power to dominate rather than lead (Maner, & Mead, 2010). By providing leaders with power, followers can be susceptible to exploitation by leaders who prioritize their power over the goals of the group (Maner, & Mead, 2010). In a healthy organization, a leader will use their power of influence to encourage members and promote positive change (Raven, 1993). It is the responsibility of the leader to influence and provide reasoning to followers as to why change may lead to greater productivity (Raven, 1993).

An effective leader would spend time getting to know their followers (Raven, 1993). Considering followers have many different motivational factors to be productive, by understanding followers’ needs and motivations, leaders can accomplish better results, and energize their followers with proper and affective rewards and incentives (Raven, 1993). Leaders are responsible for making certain that their followers achieve results and complete task as required (Raven, 1993). In order to produce the best possible results, leaders should exercise their leadership power, and aim at making certain that followers are confident and comfortable. This involves making certain that there is trust and respect between both leader and follower (Raven, 1993). The relationship between leaders and followers should be one in which followers trust their leaders to make the best decision (Raven, 1993. Healthy leadership provides stability and effective functioning for individuals and teams (Raven, 1993).

Organizational Stress

In creating a healthy organization, leaders should consider the stress levels of their followers. Stress in organizations can generate a lack of productivity and affect employees’ overall ability to work efficiently (Mitut, 2010). Organizational stress can be triggered by factors including communication, competition, and disruptive technology (Mitut, 2010). In addition, work overload, punishment, lack of feedback, and powerlessness can cause stress (Mitut, 2010). Organizational stress can lead to relationship imbalances between leader and follower (Mitut, 2010; Selart, & Johansen, 2011). Data conducted from a 2003 study by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions entitled “Working Conditions in the Acceding and Candidate Countries (Report),” analyzed stress as being the second largest organizational health problem.

The negative impacts of stress can generate absenteeism, decreased productivity, accidents, legal cost, medical expenses, and other financial losses for organizations (Mitut, 2010). A healthy organization requires not disturbing occupational stressors that create personal conflicts, frustrations, dissatisfaction, and low productivity (Mitut, 2010). It is the responsibility of the leader to create an efficient and stress-free environment that focuses on building the organizations performance (Mitut, 2010). To assess and prevent organizational stress, leaders should promote the implementation of stress management programs, which will help employees cope with stressful situations (Mitut, 2010). Moreover, leaders can minimize stress by communicating with followers, clearly defining roles, discussing concerns, and encouraging communication (Mitut, 2010). By implementing stress management programs, leaders could influence followers’ esteem and create a less stressful environment (Mitut, 2010).

Leadership Ethics

Organizational stress can have negative impacts in many situations, mainly those that involve punishment and lack of rewards (Selart, & Johansen, 2011). In stressful situations, there are increases in followers cutting corners, being more prone to incidents, and being deceptive (Selart, & Johansen, 2011). In addition, research and studies have connected stress to memory loss, negativity, and unethical decision-making (Selart, & Johansen, 2011).

According to research, 75 percent of employees choose not to work for employers with poor organizational ethics (Chekwa, Ouhirra, Thomas, & Chukwuanu, 2014). In recent years, to avoid financial and reputation negativity, many businesses have created new positions within their organization that focus on ethical matters (Chekwa, Ouhirra, Thomas, & Chukwuanu, 2014). An ethical leader is driven by morals and an ethically principle-governed mindset (Chekwa, Ouhirra, Thomas, & Chukwuanu, 2014). In an organization, ethical decision-making is considered the study and evaluation of decision-making by leaders according to moral concepts and judgment (Chekwa, Ouhirra, Thomas, & Chukwuanu, 2014). An unethical leader would violate accepted moral norms of behavior (Chekwa, Ouhirra, Thomas, & Chukwuanu, 2014).

Organizational ethics is still a growing business need. In order to help promote a healthy organization, organizational leaders should implement a code of ethics policy (Chekwa, Ouhirra, Thomas, & Chukwuanu, 2014). As leaders, it is their responsibility to educate and inform followers of the codes of ethics (Chekwa, Ouhirra, Thomas, & Chukwuanu, 2014). Within the business community, there are many leaders who consider ethics to be unimportant (Chekwa, Ouhirra, Thomas, & Chukwuanu, 2014). These individuals believe that their only responsibility to the organization is to maximize profits (Chekwa, Ouhirra, Thomas, & Chukwuanu, 2014).

As the Chief Executive Officer of American Express (Margolis, Walsh, & Krehmeyer, 2006), Kenneth Chenault explains that ethics are paramount during difficult times (Wharton, 2005). Organizational crisis have the potential to damage brand equity, generate revenue loss, and tarnish a company’s reputation (Chekwa, Ouhirra, Thomas, & Chukwuanu, 2014; Maner, & Mead, 2010). It is the responsibility of the leader to determine what is done during difficult situations (Abrhiem, 2012). An ethical leader would be effective at making sure justice and equality are achieved (Abrhiem, 2012). Leaders with ethics are likely to have an impact on followers’ self-concepts and attitudes (Hartog, & Belschak, 2012).

Conclusion

In developing healthy organizations, organizations can implement processes, programs, and interventions that will help produce effective leadership potential (Church, 2014). Transformational, transactional, and situational leadership styles may help lead employee’s to trust their leaders, which can generate and increase productivity (Whittington, Coker, Goodwin, Ickes & Murray, 2009). If leaders have an understanding of their leadership style, they can be mindful of their actions toward their followers. In understanding leadership styles, assessments can be helpful at improving leader and follower relationships (Northouse, 2013). Being informed of leadership style can help leaders gain insight and produce solutions for challenges and certain situations (Northouse, 2013).

An effective leader should understand their leadership style, communicate with followers, and use their leadership power to influence and encourage members to create positive change (Raven, 1993). An organization’s health depends on not disturbing stressors that can generate frustrations, low motivation, personal conflict, dissatisfaction, and a drop in productivity (Mitut, 2010). The leader takes on the responsibility of reducing the effects of stress and encouraging a healthy and efficient organization that focuses on maintaining and building performance (Mitut, 2010).

To avoid risking reputation and potential financial loss, leaders should remain with a moral and ethically principle-governed mindset (Chekwa, Ouhirra, Thomas, & Chukwuanu, 2014). In developing a positive leader mindset, leaders should listen to their followers’ needs, adapt to situations, create positive exchange, and build trust (Hassanzadeh, 2014). If effective, leaders will have the tools needed to promote an innovative and healthy organizational culture (Hassanzadeh, 2014).

 

Credits

Abrhiem, T. H. (2012). Ethical leadership: Keeping values in business cultures. Business and Management Review, 2(7), 11–19. Retrieved from http://www.businessjournalz.org

Avolio, B. J., Walumbwa, F. O., & Weber, T. J. (2009). Leadership: current theories , research, and future directions. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 421–449.  doi:10.1177/0149206310393520

Barnwell, D., Nedrick, S., Rudolph, E., Sesay, M., & Wellen, W. (2014). Leadership of International and Virtual Project Teams. International Journal Of Global Business, 7(2), 1-8.

Chekwa, C., Ouhirra, L., Thomas, E., & Chukwuanu, M. (2014). An examination of the effects of leadership on business ethics: Empirical study. International Journal Of Business & Public Administration, 11(1), 48-65.

Church, A. H. (2014). What Do We Know About Developing Leadership Potential?. OD Practitioner, 46(3), 52-61.

Cubero, C. G.(2007). Situational leadership and persons with disabilities. Work: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation, Special Issue: Workplace Issues and Placement, 29(4), 351-156.

Hallinger, P. (2003). Leading Educational Change: Reflections On The Practice Of Instructional And Transformational Leadership. Cambridge Journal of Education, 33(3), 329-352. doi: 10.1080/0305764032000122005

Hartog, D., & Belschak, F. (2012). Work Engagement and Machiavellianism in the Ethical Leadership Process. Journal Of Business Ethics, 107(1), 35-47. doi:10.1007/s10551-012-1296-4

Hassanzadeh, J. F. (2014). Leader-member Exchange and Creative Work Involvement: The Importance of Knowledge Sharing. Iranian Journal Of Management Studies, 7(2), 391-412.

Ishikawa, J. (2012). Transformational leadership and gatekeeping leadership: The roles of norm for maintaining consensus and shared leadership in team performance. Asia Pacific Journal Of Management, 29(2), 265-283. doi:10.1007/s10490-012-9282-z

Ismail, A., Mohamad, M.H., Mohamed, H.A., Rafiuddin, N.M., &  Zhen, K.W.P. (2010). Transformational and transactional leadership styles as a predictor of individual outcomes. Theoretical and Applied Economics, 17(6), 89-104.

Kotter, J. P. (2001). What leaders really do. Harvard Business Review, 79(11), 85–96.

Kovjanic, S., Schuh, S., Jonas, K., Quaquebeke, N., & Dick, R. (2012). How do transformational leaders foster positive employee outcomes? A self-determination-based analysis of employees’ needs as mediating links. Journal of Organizational Behavior. doi: 10.1002/job.1771

Liden, R.C., Wayne, S.J., Liao, C., & Meuser, J.D. (2014). Servant leadership and serving culture: Influence on individual and unit performance. Academy of Management Journal, 57, 1434-1452.  doi:10.5465/amj.2013.0034

Lopez, R. (2014). The Relationship between Leadership and Management: Instructional Approaches and its Connections to Organizational Growth. Journal Of Business Studies Quarterly, 6(1), 98-112.

Magni, M., & Maruping, L. M. (2013). Sink or Swim: Empowering Leadership and Overload in Teams’ Ability to Deal with the Unexpected. Human Resource Management, 52(5), 715-739. doi:10.1002/hrm.21561

Maner , J. K., & Mead, N. L. (2010). The essential tension between leadership and power- When leaders sacrifice group goals for the sake of self-interest. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 99(3), 482–497. doi:10.1037/a0018559

Margolis, J., Walsh, J., & Krehmeyer, D. (2006, January 1). Building the business case for ethics. Retrieved December 1, 2014, from http://www.corporate-ethics.org/pdf/business_case.pdf

McCleskey, J. A. (2014). Situational, Transformational, and Transactional Leadership and Leadership Development. Journal Of Business Studies Quarterly, 5(4), 117-130.

Mitut, I. (2010). Managerial investment on organizational stress. Romanian Economic and Business Review, 5(3), 89–99.

Northouse, P.G. (2013). Leadership: Theory and practice (6th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications

Raven, B. H. (1993). The bases of power: Origins and recent developments. Journal of Social Issues, 49(4), 227-251. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.1993.tb01191.x

Schriesheim, C. A., Podsakoff, P. M., & Hinkin, T. R. (1991). Can ipsative and single-item measures produce erroneous results in field studies of French and Raven’s (1959) five bases of power? An empirical investigation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76(1), 106–114. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.76.1.106

Selart, M., & Johansen, S. (2011). Ethical Decision Making in Organizations: The Role of Leadership Stress. Journal Of Business Ethics, 99(2), 129-143. doi:10.1007/s10551-010-0649-0

Strang, S. E., & Kuhnert, K. W. (2009). Personality and leadership developmental levels as predictors of leader performance. Leadership Quarterly, 20(3), 421–433. doi:10.1016/j.leaqua.2009.03.009

Vroom, V. H., & Jago, A. G. (2007). The role of the situation in leadership. American Psychologist, 62(1), 17–24. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.62.1.17

Wharton. (2005, April 20). AmEx’s Ken Chenault Talks about Leadership, Integrity and the Credit Card Business. Retrieved December 1, 2014, from http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article/amexs-ken-chenault-talks-about-leadership-integrity-and-the-credit-card-business/

Whittington, J. L., Coker, R. H., Goodwin, V. L., Ickes, W., & Murray, B. (2009). Transactional leadership revisited: Self-other agreement and its consequences. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 39(8), 1860–1886. doi:10.1111/j.1559-1816.2009.00507.x

Mark Zuckerberg and Facebook Leadership

The purpose of this post was to examine the leadership style of Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg. Media sources were extracted as resources for uncovering how Mark Zuckerberg’s leadership style has an effect on the company’s success and employee satisfaction. The blog further examines Facebook employees by including interviews with current and former Facebook employees. As a transformational leader, Mark Zuckerberg has learned from his mistakes, takes risks, and has grown his company as a visionary leader. Through determination, self-awareness, and by the help of mentor’s, Mark Zuckerberg has been placed on the top 10 CEOs list and has built the most popular social network in the world.

Uncovering Leadership Styles

Transactional leaders focus on maintaining normal workflow of operations. These types of leaders will use disciplinary powers, awards, and an array of incentives to motivate employees to perform their best. These leaders are focused on satisfying quotas on a day-to-day basis. Transformational leaders tend to go beyond the normal day-to-day and focus mainly on creating a solid team of employees by promoting team building. Transformational leaders motivate their employees through setting goals, implementing incentives, and providing opportunities for personal and professional growth (Northouse, 2013). Mark Zuckerberg embodies the characteristics of a transformational leader. He is known as being a motivator who inspires his staff of employees with a clear vision of the company’s future. He further defines the steps necessary to achieve such goals needed. His ideas are disruptive, and his confidence, courage, and vigor makes him a transformational leader that employees relish following (Duggan, 2014).

Mark Zuckerberg

Mark Zuckerberg was born in 1984, in White Plains, New York. His father was a dentist, his mother was a psychiatrist, and he has three sisters. During his sophomore year at Harvard University, Zuckerberg dropped out of college to focus on a social network that he created called Facebook. The company setup their first offices in 2004, during which Zuckerberg had turned down major offers from corporations interested in buying his project. Zuckerberg later explained that the reason he did not sell his company was that he was not interested in the money, but motivated by his passion to produce an open information flow for people with his social network. With the guidance of Apple Inc.’s founder, Steve Jobs, Zuckerberg put together a management team that focused on building Facebook into a high quality business. Zuckerberg is known to have a goal-oriented mindset and is fully focused on leading his team to produce the best social media platform in the world. Today, Mark Zuckerberg is the youngest billionaire on earth and Chairman/CEO of the world’s most popular website, Facebook (Woolley, 2014).

Facebook Environment

At its headquarters in MenloPark, California, each Friday Facebook holds a question and answer session for its employees and users. This forum is as open discussion where Zuckerberg is known for sharing his personal thoughts on the company’s direction. Interns at Facebook, typically make $67,000 yearly, which is $25,000 more than the average U.S. citizen. On a yearly basis, the company puts together a birthday bash for its employees where everyone is given a present for their birthday that took place in that year. The café at facebook offers employees gourmet meals within a setting designed by a team that built a four-star hotel in New York. The Facebook work environment also includes an on-site doctor, chiropractor, and physical therapist. It includes vending machines stocked with computer accessories where users can swipe their identification card and get items such as a new computer charger, batter pack, or keyboard. Once a year, Facebook rents a local park and allows their entire office staff to play games such as dodgeball, kickball, and soccer. In the Facebook work environment, employee comfort and happiness is paramount. Facebook believes that if its employees are comfortable and happy, then they will be more productive (Smith, 2013).

According to an employee study done by Glassdoor (2014), Mark Zuckerberg is rated as number 10 on a list of top 50 CEO’s to work for. Glassdoor is a website were employees voluntarily go to post ratings and reviews on their employer’s and companies in which they work for. Based on the question, “Do you approve of the way this person is handling the job of leading this company?” Facebook employees approved of Mark Zuckerberg’s leadership on an average of 93% out of 100%. The results were calculated based on the ratings between the months of February 2013 and January 2014.

 Working for Mark Zuckerberg

The interview process at Facebook is designed to select employees that fit the culture of the company. Once hired, the employees must learn fast and complete intensive training courses on coding, and hacking. Employees, are not assigned projects, but are allowed to choose the projects in which they are most interested. This method of leadership gives the employees power, courage, and freedom to choose their action of success. Zuckerberg believes that great people who work with clear direction can produce positive results. He believes that employees should be hired based on their passion and not their skillset. He explains that, “skills can be taught, passion can’t,” (Walter, ).

According to Yishan Wong, a former employee at Facebook, as a boss, Zuckerberg began as being cutthroat, and sometimes awkward. His leadership style eventually matured through the five years while Wong was employed with the company between 2005 and 2010. Wong explained that Zuckerberg expected debate, wasn’t sentimental, and he pushed people beyond what they thought was possible of themselves. Wong further explained that in working for Facebook, you must be self-motivated, confident, emotionally secure, and willing to accept the challenges (Carlson, 2012).

To help with building his leadership style, Zuckerberg sought-out mentors, who eventually helped him create a clear vision for his company (Samson, 2013). Andrew Bosworth, a current software engineer at facebook, described Zuckerberg’s leadership as fearless, tireless, and challenging, but with good reason. The results of his leadership, expose unthinkable talent within the employees (Bosworth, 2010). As described in Belscher (2012), Zuckerberg’s leadership style can be considered demanding, aggressive, and encouraging to employees.

Conclusion

Zuckerberg’s transformational leadership style continues to move Facebook to a promising future. He has flourished as a leader and he understands and motivates continued growth within his company (Namin-Hedayati, 2014). Mark Zuckerberg is known as an entrepreneur, programmer, and philanthropist. His transformational leadership style can be described as aggressive, demanding, innovative, and encouraging. As a leader who appreciates friendly debates, he grants his employees opportunities to offer product improvements and suggestions for Facebook (AdviseAmerica, 2014). Zuckerberg understands and admits that he has made many mistakes within his company, but as a transformational leader, he strives to turn those mistakes into growth opportunities (Rasing, 2011).

 

Credits

AdviseAmerica. (2014, May 27). Mark Zuckerberg Leadership Style. Retrieved November 6, 2014, from http://www.adviseamerica.com/mark-zuckerberg-leadership-style/

Belscher, B. (2012, December 29). The Management Style of Mark Zuckerberg. Retrieved November 6, 2014, from http://stylemeceo.wordpress.com/2012/12/29/the-management-style-of-mark-zukerberg/

Bosworth, A. (2010, March 4). Working with Zuck. Retrieved November 6, 2014, from facebook.com/note.php?note_id=339013388919

Carlson, N. (2012, January 25). Confessions of a Facebook employee: What It’s Really Like Working For Zuckerberg. Retrieved November 7, 2014, from http://www.businessinsider.com/confessions-of-a-facebook-employee-what-its-really-like-working-for-zuckerberg-2012-1

Duggan, T. (2014, May 23). Transformational Leadership Examples in Business. Retrieved November 6, 2014, from http://yourbusiness.azcentral.com/transformational-leadership-examples-business-4571.html

Glassdoor. (2014, January 1). 50 Highest Rated CEOs. Retrieved November 9, 2014, from http://www.glassdoor.com/50-Highest-Rated-CEOs-LST_KQ0,21.htm

Namin-Hedayati, F. (2014, March 5). Mark Zuckerberg’s Leadership Qualities. Retrieved November 7, 2014, from http://www.centerforworklife.com/mark-zuckerbergs-leadership-qualities/

Northouse, P. G. (2013). Leadership: Theory and practice (6th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Rasing, M. (2011, March 8). Mark Zuckerberg: Transformational Leadership in Action. Retrieved November 6, 2014, from http://ezinearticles.com/?Mark-Zuckerberg:-Transformational-Leadership-in-Action&id=6053695

Samson, N. (2013, November 7). 6 Leadership Lessons from Mark Zuckerberg. Retrieved November 7, 2014, from http://www.mensxp.com/work-life/leadership/21016-6-leadership-lessons-from-mark-zuckerberg.html

Smith, K. (2013, April 18). This Is What Life Is Actually Like Working For Facebook. Retrieved November 5, 2014, from http://www.businessinsider.com/what-its-like-to-work-at-facebook-2013-4

Walter, E. (2014, May 14). How to Lead Like Zuck. Retrieved November 6, 2014, from http://www.inc.com/ekaterina-walter/as-zuckerberg-turns-30-leadership-lessons.html

Wei Xi, S. (2013, July 4). Mark Elliot Zuckerberg. Retrieved November 6, 2014, from http://greatmindgreatleaders.wordpress.com/2013/07/04/mark-zuckerberg/

Woolley, P. (2014, January 1). Why We Desperately Need More CEOs Like Zuckerberg | Leadership Principles. Retrieved November 5, 2014, from http://socialleadershipdevelopment.com/leadership-qualities-1/mark-zuckerberg-ce

Authentic Leadership

Authentic leadership theorist proposed that trust, behavior, and emotions are what exert authentic leaders’ influence on their followers. The formula that creates an authentic leader includes: early challenges, relationship influences, education, crises, and life experiences (Avolio, Walumbwa, & Weber, 2009). Authentic leadership theory is gaining increased attention in the scholarly communities (Klenke, 2007). An authentic leader is suggested to be developed based on their life’s story over time and through introspection. An authentic leader can help followers find meaning and self-awareness. Trasformational leadership can be accomplished by building optimism, confidence, and fostering positive ethical environments (Avolio, & Gardner, 2005). Theorist Bill George suggested that corporations select leaders based on their character and not charisma. He argued that leaders’ values and motivational abilities needed to be genuine in order to restore public trust. Authentic leaders influence followers from a moral perspective. This type of influence is said to energize followers by creating meaning and constructing positive reality. There are four elements of self-awareness in an authentic leader: values, cognitions regarding identity, emotions, and motives/goals. Authentic leadership constructs the importance of leaders’ inner life instead of focusing on leadership as having or doing. It assumes that the inner imaginations and spiritual identity are what guide and motivate the leaders’ behavior (Klenke, 2007).

Growing evidence suggest that an authentic leader approach is effective for organizations. This type of leadership is desirable and considered to achieve positive outcomes. The term authenticity is described as  “owning one’s personal experiences.” If individuals know themselves, they will display higher levels of stability. Persons who are not authentic are believed to be fragile, biased, and will have lowered self-esteem. Authentic behavior will reflect consistency based on the leaders’ values, beliefs, and actions (Walumbwa, Avolio, Gardner, Wernsing, & Peterson, 2008). Authentic leaders are considered expressive of their authentic self and known to foster high-quality relationships while projecting their values and visions onto followers (Klenke, 2007; Northouse, 2013, p. 259; Walumbwa, Avolio, Gardner, Wernsing, & Peterson, 2008). The theory of authentic leadership is a result of writings on transformational leadership, which suggest that not all transformational leaders are genuine (Avolio, Walumbwa, & Weber, 2009). Authentic leadership is considered a transparent and ethical leader that is open to accept followers’ input (Avolio, Walumbwa, & Weber, 2009; Avolio, & Gardner, 2005).

Situational Leadership

Situational leadership is based on the theory that effective leadership requires an appropriate response based on rational understanding for each unique situation. A situational leadership style is classified as a contingency or behavioral theory that centralizes the leader behavior as either task of people focused. To establish a relationship between a situational leader and follower, key factors such as level of maturity or readiness of the follower need to be accounted for (McCleskey, 2014).

In seeking to comprehend organizational management, researchers have examined and implied that there is no one certain leadership style that works for every type of situation. Situational leadership is a combination of three major features: relational concerns, leader direction, and motivational level of followers. Situational leaders place attention on the functionality of the environment, such as maturity and follower psychological state. By focusing on the members’ well-being, it will create an effective relationship between leader and follower. A situational leader and their follower’s relationship are considered individualized under this type of model. A manager at a work environment needing to adjust for a disabled employee is an example of a situational leader. As a leader, the manager must place a unique situational approach to the needs and functional capabilities between the disabled employee and workplace. The leader should be fluid and adjust toward the needs of the disabled employee. In order to fulfill the needs of a disabled employee, a situational leadership style framework must be implemented. A situational leader will recognize the capacities of a disabled employee and provide a level of comfort, security, and understanding for the employee (Cubero, 2007).

Transformational Leadership: An Ideal Solution?

Transformational leaders seek to work with the members in order to create a positive future that focuses on the status quo (Hallinger, 2003). Proper leadership is a key factor in organizational success. Transformational leaders focus on the higher needs of the company and desire to use the full potential of the follower by going beyond the social exchange. A transformational leader can have a great impact on a follower’s self-concept. This is done by encouragement and intellectual stimulation (Kovjanic, Schuh, Jonas, Quaquebeke, & Dick, 2012). Transformational leaders encourage their followers to question assumptions by promoting unique thinking (Whittington, Coker, Goodwin, Ickes & Murray, 2009). These types of leaders believe in building follower’s capabilities and striving to enhance those followers’ knowledge and skills through regular feedback and building trust and respect (Kovjanic, Schuh, Jonas, Quaquebeke, & Dick, 2012).

An example of a transformational leader would be a principal at an educational facility. A principal has the task of overseeing the school’s operation and making sure that the students are affected by his leadership decisions. In order to do this successfully, the principal must build the organization so that the teachers support the development and direction (Hallinger, 2003). This would require the principal to not focus directly on controlling or supervising curriculum, but to share the leadership role with those that have a direct impact on the students. This method is called controlling from above, and it stimulates change from the bottom-up (Hallinger, 2003). Leadership is about more than the leaders, it is also about the followers, work environment, and culture (Avolio, Walumbwa, & Weber, 2009).

Transactional leadership is when a leader exchanges something of value with a follower. This exchange is based on the follower being credited for positive performance. The goal of this type of leadership is for both the leader and follower to enter into a mutually beneficial exchange in pursuit of a higher purpose (Whittington, Coker, Goodwin, Ickes & Murray, 2009). Transformational leadership is centered on economic contract and not a relational contract (Ismail, Mohamad, Mohamed, Rafiuddin, & Zhen, 2010). Transactional leaders are more likely to focus on maintaining normal workflow of operations. These types of leaders will use disciplinary powers, awards, and an array of incentives to motivate employees to perform their best. These leaders are more concerned with satisfying quotas on a day-to-day basis (Northouse, 2013).

In an educational institution, an example of a transformational leader can be the instructors that teach and work directly with the students. In helping to develop the students for success into the next grade level or graduation, a teacher may find many ways to help a struggling student. Methods can include promising the student a higher grade if they work harder, or rewarding another student with a letter of recommendation in exchange for a stellar essay for tutoring a failing student.

Transformational leadership in an educational institution is an effective approach for a principal considering it seeks to create a climate in which teachers continually learn and then share that knowledge to others. This approach is believed to create organizational commitment, due to the teachers understanding the mission of the school. The principal in this sense is creating positive conditions for the teachers that will help them become self-motivated at improving the school. These positive effects from the principal to the teachers will create direct effects on the classroom. By giving teachers the responsibility of managing their own classroom, the principal will be less subject to burnout (Hallinger, 2003).

Through transformational leadership, school principals can focus more of their attention on moving the school forward. This benefit of being a transformational principal allows the teacher to help with creating success. This motivates teachers to do more than expected and have greater productivity. This allows the school to work together, versus having separate objectives (Balyer, 2012). Together, the institution can create a hierarchy of transformational leaders and transactional leaders. Research has determines that having both transformational leaders and transactional leaders working together can be most effective (Hallinger, 2003). An effective transformational principal will be a confident and successful role model to the transactional teachers (Kovjanic, Schuh, Jonas, Quaquebeke, & Dick, 2012).

A negative impact of a transformational leader can be determined by whether or not the leader is effective. An ineffective leader will create negative perceptions of the institutions conditions and lower their commitment (Hallinger, 2003). Furthermore, transformational leaders can oftentimes leave role expectations unclear, which result in improper direction, and loss of trust in the leadership (Whittington, Coker, Goodwin, Ickes & Murray, 2009).

 

Credits

Avolio, B. J., Walumbwa, F. O., & Weber, T. J. (2009). Leadership: current theories , research, and future directions. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 421–449. doi:10.1177/0149206310393520

Hallinger, P. (2003). Leading Educational Change: Reflections On The Practice Of Instructional And Transformational Leadership. Cambridge Journal of Education, 33(3), 329-352. doi: 10.1080/0305764032000122005

Ismail, A., Mohamad, M.H., Mohamed, H.A., Rafiuddin, N.M., & Zhen, K.W.P. (2010). Transformational and transactional leadership styles as a predictor of individual outcomes, Theoretical and Applied Economics, 17(6), 89-104. Retrieved from www.ectap.ro

Kovjanic, S., Schuh, S., Jonas, K., Quaquebeke, N., & Dick, R. (2012). How do transformational leaders foster positive employee outcomes? A self-determination-based analysis of employees’ needs as mediating links. Journal of Organizational Behavior. Retrieved November 11, 2014, from wileyonlinelibrary.com

Northouse, P.G. (2013). Leadership: Theory and practice (6th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications

Balyer, A. (2012). Transformational leadership behaviors of school principals: A qualitative research based on teachers’ perceptions. International Online Journal of Educational Sciences, 4(3), 581-591. Retrieved November 11, 2014, from www.iojes.net/

Whittington, J. L., Coker, R. H., Goodwin, V. L., Ickes, W., & Murray, B. (2009). Transactional leadership revisited: Self-other agreement and its consequences. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 39(8), 1860–1886

READY TO GROW YOUR BUSINESS?
Mark Zuckerberg and Facebook Leadership
Copyright 2023 - Dr. Elijah Clark Enterprises - Sitemap - Policy - Fees