Dallas Business Consultant Elijah ClarkDallas Business Consultant Elijah Clark

Creating a Personal Learning Network

PLN stands for Personal Learning Network. A PLN consist of a few friends you met at college with whom you shared ideas and resources, then after adding in a few of their friends and coworkers, the PLN grows (Digital Learning Team, 2013). Having a PLN is important because it offers up an opportunity to connect with individuals or businesses that could help in developing insight and a difference of professional opinion. A PLN works through sharing experiences and knowledge amongst members within the group. Through a PLN connection, the members can get answers to questions and take advantage of opportunities provided by those within their PLN.

A Personal Learning Network (PLN) reaches its most potential online through social networking platforms, twitter, facebook, LinkedIn and YouTube. Through these networks, professionals within a PLN can share personal and professional experiences through short status updates, blogs, photos, and videos. This information can be used as resources to followers and subscribers who have opted to stay connected with the individual or business (Digital Learning Team, 2013). PLN’s began with building relationships with the people that we meet face-to-face. It has however become most prominent in online social platforms where networks can grow tremendously by following or commenting to a friend or professional. Not having a PLN would mean missing valuable information and resources for career or personal knowledge.

Creating a Personal Learning Network

In creating a PLN, the creator must understand the audience. Once the audience is determined, the individual can decide how to create either a professional or personal brand image. In creating a PLN, it must be determined whether you are promoting yourself or your professional knowledge. In my PLN for personal use, I prefer to mention that I am married with kids, I like certain sports, my education background, what I like to do for fun, and I like to talk about religion and politics. With my professional PLN profile, I include a professional photo, and a history of my career and education. With this network, my conversations focus around my industry experience, trends, technology, and education. Each of my networks presents a friendly and inviting tone. My professional pages include selections from my resume and website. My personal profiles include information on what I like and believe.

A Personal Learning Network is a valuable resource that can be used by anyone from a friend to a stranger. A PLN is not only helpful for gaining information, but it is a great opportunity for individuals and businesses to network and share their professional knowledge and experience with those that are interested. With so many opportunities to develop skills and knowledge, having a PLN is essential to advancing and strengthening one’s understanding and education.



Digital Learning Team. (2013, April 3). What is a PLN? (and why would I want to know?).

Retrieved October 15, 2014, from http://digitallearningteam.org/2013/03/14/what-is-a-pln-and-why-would-i-want-to-know/


Setting Your Price

Setting and presenting your price may be the single most important thing to get right in your business. When determining the value of your product or service, keep in mind that pricing low will lower your revenue, introduce a new lower quality customer, and could damage the growth of your business. Low pricing also creates low motivation from you or your team and will often prevent you from going the extra mile for the customer. However, pricing high may give your competition the upper-hand with customers looking to spend less.

How to Price. You should set your price based on the true value of the product or service, which, in addition to the cost of producing any tangible product, includes the cost to cover the tools, software, electricity, employees, etc. In addition, the cost should easily allow you to reach your break-even point. The goal of your price should be to generate sales in excess of 50% above the break-even mark. Never make it a habit of charging your customers based on your lack of knowledge or technology. Your customer should never pay because you don’t know how to do your job properly or efficiently. However, if the customer has a unique problem that involves research and no easy solution, which may include a system hack, training, or simply writing a document or tutorial, you should charge based on the time it takes you to research and resolve the issue. Your customers should not be concerned with the time it takes for you to complete their request. They care about the value you bring. If they believe that you are the best, then your price may not be relevant. If you have tough competition and the customer doesn’t care about the quality you bring, then the price is very important and you will need to also consider the competition and brand reputation when setting prices.

Real vs. Perceived Value. Value pricing attracts value conscious customers. The actual cost of product production determines the real value. In addition, the real value is dependent on the usefulness of the product to the customer as well as the value of the product components. Ultimately, the perceived value is based on how much money the customer believes the product is worth.

For example, in the context of higher education, the perceived value of a college or university among individuals looking to invest in higher education tremendously affects the institution’s price. Students and their families perceive the value of the institution to be within the quality of the education. Consequently, the higher the perceived value of quality, the higher the cost of tuition. Research, however, has not proven correlation between institutional cost and actual quality. Additionally, it was found that perceived value of an institution did correlate with a student’s likelihood of enrollment. Perceived value of an education has three main factors which include, quality, cost, and emotional attachment. Failing to satisfy either of these could jeopardize the student’s enrollment potential as it will affect the student’s perceived value. In marketing, generating excitement can also generate a sale and loyal customers. If a customer is excited about a product, they may ignore the cost and quality factor. If an individual truly believes in the quality and value of a product or service, then the perceived value becomes more valuable than the real value.


Transformational Leadership: An Ideal Solution?

Transformational leaders seek to work with the members in order to create a positive future that focuses on the status quo (Hallinger, 2003). Proper leadership is a key factor in organizational success. Transformational leaders focus on the higher needs of the company and desire to use the full potential of the follower by going beyond the social exchange. A transformational leader can have a great impact on a follower’s self-concept. This is done by encouragement and intellectual stimulation (Kovjanic, Schuh, Jonas, Quaquebeke, & Dick, 2012). Transformational leaders encourage their followers to question assumptions by promoting unique thinking (Whittington, Coker, Goodwin, Ickes & Murray, 2009). These types of leaders believe in building follower’s capabilities and striving to enhance those followers’ knowledge and skills through regular feedback and building trust and respect (Kovjanic, Schuh, Jonas, Quaquebeke, & Dick, 2012).

An example of a transformational leader would be a principal at an educational facility. A principal has the task of overseeing the school’s operation and making sure that the students are affected by his leadership decisions. In order to do this successfully, the principal must build the organization so that the teachers support the development and direction (Hallinger, 2003). This would require the principal to not focus directly on controlling or supervising curriculum, but to share the leadership role with those that have a direct impact on the students. This method is called controlling from above, and it stimulates change from the bottom-up (Hallinger, 2003). Leadership is about more than the leaders, it is also about the followers, work environment, and culture (Avolio, Walumbwa, & Weber, 2009).

Transactional leadership is when a leader exchanges something of value with a follower. This exchange is based on the follower being credited for positive performance. The goal of this type of leadership is for both the leader and follower to enter into a mutually beneficial exchange in pursuit of a higher purpose (Whittington, Coker, Goodwin, Ickes & Murray, 2009). Transformational leadership is centered on economic contract and not a relational contract (Ismail, Mohamad, Mohamed, Rafiuddin, & Zhen, 2010). Transactional leaders are more likely to focus on maintaining normal workflow of operations. These types of leaders will use disciplinary powers, awards, and an array of incentives to motivate employees to perform their best. These leaders are more concerned with satisfying quotas on a day-to-day basis (Northouse, 2013).

In an educational institution, an example of a transformational leader can be the instructors that teach and work directly with the students. In helping to develop the students for success into the next grade level or graduation, a teacher may find many ways to help a struggling student. Methods can include promising the student a higher grade if they work harder, or rewarding another student with a letter of recommendation in exchange for a stellar essay for tutoring a failing student.

Transformational leadership in an educational institution is an effective approach for a principal considering it seeks to create a climate in which teachers continually learn and then share that knowledge to others. This approach is believed to create organizational commitment, due to the teachers understanding the mission of the school. The principal in this sense is creating positive conditions for the teachers that will help them become self-motivated at improving the school. These positive effects from the principal to the teachers will create direct effects on the classroom. By giving teachers the responsibility of managing their own classroom, the principal will be less subject to burnout (Hallinger, 2003).

Through transformational leadership, school principals can focus more of their attention on moving the school forward. This benefit of being a transformational principal allows the teacher to help with creating success. This motivates teachers to do more than expected and have greater productivity. This allows the school to work together, versus having separate objectives (Balyer, 2012). Together, the institution can create a hierarchy of transformational leaders and transactional leaders. Research has determines that having both transformational leaders and transactional leaders working together can be most effective (Hallinger, 2003). An effective transformational principal will be a confident and successful role model to the transactional teachers (Kovjanic, Schuh, Jonas, Quaquebeke, & Dick, 2012).

A negative impact of a transformational leader can be determined by whether or not the leader is effective. An ineffective leader will create negative perceptions of the institutions conditions and lower their commitment (Hallinger, 2003). Furthermore, transformational leaders can oftentimes leave role expectations unclear, which result in improper direction, and loss of trust in the leadership (Whittington, Coker, Goodwin, Ickes & Murray, 2009).



Avolio, B. J., Walumbwa, F. O., & Weber, T. J. (2009). Leadership: current theories , research, and future directions. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 421–449. doi:10.1177/0149206310393520

Hallinger, P. (2003). Leading Educational Change: Reflections On The Practice Of Instructional And Transformational Leadership. Cambridge Journal of Education, 33(3), 329-352. doi: 10.1080/0305764032000122005

Ismail, A., Mohamad, M.H., Mohamed, H.A., Rafiuddin, N.M., & Zhen, K.W.P. (2010). Transformational and transactional leadership styles as a predictor of individual outcomes, Theoretical and Applied Economics, 17(6), 89-104. Retrieved from www.ectap.ro

Kovjanic, S., Schuh, S., Jonas, K., Quaquebeke, N., & Dick, R. (2012). How do transformational leaders foster positive employee outcomes? A self-determination-based analysis of employees’ needs as mediating links. Journal of Organizational Behavior. Retrieved November 11, 2014, from wileyonlinelibrary.com

Northouse, P.G. (2013). Leadership: Theory and practice (6th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications

Balyer, A. (2012). Transformational leadership behaviors of school principals: A qualitative research based on teachers’ perceptions. International Online Journal of Educational Sciences, 4(3), 581-591. Retrieved November 11, 2014, from www.iojes.net/

Whittington, J. L., Coker, R. H., Goodwin, V. L., Ickes, W., & Murray, B. (2009). Transactional leadership revisited: Self-other agreement and its consequences. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 39(8), 1860–1886

Relationship Benefits

Building relationships with your customers is a must when looking to start and grow your business. Some of the substantial benefits of building a quality relationship with customers are explained below.

Customer Satisfaction: Customer satisfaction is an important measurement of how a product or service meets or surpasses the customer’s needs. It is a reliable indication of the potential for repeat business and brand loyalty. Customer satisfaction can be attained only if your customer has an overall good relationship with your business and you consistently meet or exceed their expectations. In today’s competitive marketplace, customer satisfaction is an important performance factor and a basic differentiator of business strategies. Hence, the more satisfied the customer, the stronger the bond they have with your business.

Customer Retention: Customer retention is a strategic process to keep or retain your existing customers and deter them from using other suppliers or organizations. This is only possible when there is a quality relationship between your business and the customer. Usually, a customer will remain loyal to a particular brand or product as their needs grow and only if those needs are properly fulfilled.

Referrals: The most cost effective approach to grow your customer base is through referrals. When customers feel satisfied, they are encouraged to become brand advocates for your business. These referrals are beneficial for your business considering there is little to no cost associated with this process. Referrals are an optimal form of marketing and profit generation.

Revenue Growth: When your business maintains a healthy relationship with customers, revenue will always increase considering current happy customers tend to purchase more. There is also the potential for a satisfied customer to purchase additional products or services when offered the option to bundle those products and services. For instance, if a satisfied loyal customer has home insurance from an insurance company that they trust, there is a high probability that the customer will also purchase property and auto insurance from that same company.

Retention Cost: The cost to service existing satisfied customers is substantially less expensive than that of acquiring new customers considering there is no acquisition cost, your business should already know the needs and wants of existing customers, and active customers will have fewer queries and complaints as they are already aware of your business’s processes, products, and checkout flow.

Don’t try to do everything

One of the biggest business mistakes I have ever made was trying to do everything myself. I wore the hats of the marketing department, sales, customer service, collections, technical support, developer, graphic artist, etc.

I understand that you may want to save money or may simply not have the financial support to hire someone else to complete additional task. However, do what you need until you can get help and then get the help. If you have to cut your pay temporarily to hire a project manager while you handle sales, you will be grateful in the end. Else, you’ll drain yourself empty and never have the time to do what you love.

Do yourself a favor and focus on what made you love the idea of being a business owner in the first place.

The Follow-Up

Providing the customer with a price isn’t the final step – obviously. You still need the potential customer to make the purchase. Because many businesses don’t like to think outside of an immediate sale, they often fail to implement follow-up procedures that pay off after an estimate. They give up after a few emails or calls. Remember: Persistence is key. If you understand your customers’ journey, you know that this is all a part of the decision-making process. Now, you just need to give potential customers the information they need to make the final leap.

To help with your follow-up, create a process for your typical sales cycle armed with information on average close rates and the time it takes to complete a deal. With a customer relationship management program (CRM), you can define these stages and easily keep track of progress. Map out what information you will send at each part in the process. Consider creating an email series that checks in on the customer every few weeks and reiterates how your business can help. Send the proposal with an invitation for an in-person meeting, visit, or phone call the following week to continue the momentum of the conversations. Tweak the messaging of your emails to determine what resonates with prospects. You’ve gotten this far. Don’t fail at the follow-up.

Building Trust. Trust takes time. When you are sending marketing material to a potential customer, there just isn’t always time to create a trusting relationship. But there are things you can do to prove you are credible, which is a step in the right direction. Credibility starts with a good reputation and a good design which inspires confidence in the viewer. When designing, follow modern design standards and practices to create a clean, easy-to-read campaign. In addition, marketing content full of misspellings and poor grammar can be a red flag for customers. It says little for your business’s ability to pay attention to detail and reduces your credibility as a professional organization. Finally, you need compelling testimonials or case studies that showcase the results you can deliver, the type of working relationships you have, and how you solved problems for previous customers.


Personal Branding

Important of organizational branding
Brands are often an organization’s most valuable asset. A strong brand can generate a loyal consumer and positive sales. It is the responsibility of the marketer to create a brand that consumers view as positive and valuable. In order for the brand to be valuable to the consumer, it needs to simplify the decision making process and reduce the risk for the consumer. Positive branding can influence consumer behavior. Having a strong brand will result in better earnings and profit performance, which will generate greater shareholder value for the organization.

Personal brand in 21st century
Personal branding is important within the 21st century. Many hiring organizations research employees on the Internet and find unsettling information that could have been prevented by the individual had they monitored their personal brand. Personal branding can have a tremendous affect on how an employee, celebrity, or public figure is viewed. A negative brand can cause job loss, rejection, or public humiliation for individuals. To create a successful personal brand, individuals can research their name online to find and remove negative information associated with them. In addition, they could enhance their current online presence and create content that promotes their best assets. Furthermore, individuals could promote their brand by having peers and organizations recommend and bolster their positive skillsets to others. This can be done by networking and creating friendships with industry influencers.

Branding process
The term personal brand was first introduced in an article by author Tom Peters in 1997. The process was developed to help individual’s use critical thinking and analytical reasoning to enhance their career planning. Within brand credibility, third-party endorsements have a tremendous affect on generating credibility for individuals as well as businesses, which assist with spreading positive brand awareness. Individual branding is different in that it requires a positive attitude and relationship building. Unlike business branding, which recommends posting a social ad or banner on a webpage, billboard, and in magazines, personal branding requires networking. Networking can be done via social networks, local group meetings, and events. In addition, during these networking sessions the individual needs to be likable and must present good character.

Branding involves creating, maintaining, and enhancing brand awareness. Marketers can purchase advertising targeted at audiences based on behavioral indicators and key performance indicators. This method is often used in online social media spaces by large brands. This practice does not differ based on the type of product or if that product is a person or an intangible asset. In addition, endorsements help enhance consumers’ attitudes and behaviors toward the brand. Attitudes toward the brands message have an impact on the consumers’ purchase and behavioral intentions. To promote the brand, marketers could invest in advertising, which is a more general means of communication for promoting the brand.

A perfect example of marketing based on consumers’ brand attitude and publicity is the beats headphone brand. The brand was introduced without a large budget and focused on building credibility through celebrity and word-of-mouth. As the consumers accepted the credibility as positive, they spread word about the product as being a commodity to those interested in owning the popular brand. With the help of social promotions, celebrity credibility, industry targeted publicity, and brand messaging; the brand has developed into a multi-billion dollar company.

Marketing-oriented publicity enhances positive and negative cognitive responses of a buyer. A positive cognitive response enhances the brand messaging for the consumer, which has an impact on their purchasing decision. Consequently, a negative attitude and cognitive response toward the brand messaging reducing the likelihood of a consumer purchasing.

A personal brand is a presentation of an individuals unique skills, knowledge, experience, and expertise that make the individual memorable to other. These unique assets influence employers to hire and professionals to want to work with individuals. In order for individuals to expand their social brand and generate brand awareness, they can start by creating or cleaning up their social media pages. On social media pages individuals should not post anything that they don’t want employers to see. This includes both text and images. In addition to social media pages, individuals should create digital portfolios and personal websites. The benefits of these are that employers can easily find websites and it allows the individual to present themselves in favorable conditions.

In addition to creating and enhancing the personal brand, the individual should always monitor their brand activity. For instance, the individual can google their name and see what content shows. If the content is something unfavorable, they should contact the content poster or website and ask for it to be removed. Or remove it themselves if they have access.

Impact of Reviews on Marketing Objective

Customer engagement is critical when working to develop brand awareness and increase sales. Negative customer reviews affect small businesses significantly more than larger businesses. Consequently, depending upon your business size, customer reviews may not always have a significant influence on your profitability. Additionally, reviews, whether positive or negative, do not have a significant influence on customers familiar with your business. Similar to a tree in the forest, a review alone is not going to gain or lose new business for a client, but can help to sway a potential customer to make a decision either way. Engaging with customers is a strategy recommended by marketing agencies to create a competitive advantage by building relationships with customers. If the objective of your business is customer acquisition, retention, or brand awareness, then customer reviews can affect your marketing strategy development.

Because of social media, customer feedback and reviews can quickly reach a broad audience and have an immediate effect on the success of your business’s marketing efforts. Due to the popularity of the internet, you can analyze and predict customer behaviors by using social networks and review-based websites. Your business should spend marketing dollars wisely, so gaining more reviews is not always as important as generating brand awareness through other reliable methods of marketing. Your marketing strategies should focus on relationship building with customers to better develop successful strategies for increasing customer loyalty and sales. However, you are likely not effectively accomplishing your marketing objective if you are receiving a significant amount of negative reviews.

Blogging Strategy

A blog or weblog covers a mixture of what is happening in the daily life of your business as well as new and upcoming events. A blogging strategy can be used to help determine how to engage with online users and generate website traffic. When designing your blog, be sure to create it so that it increases brand awareness and attracts readers.

Other benefits of blogging include:

  • Googleloves it! Blogs are great for increasing website indexed pages, and Google places value on websites with a high volume of indexed pages.
  • Customers can remain current with the status of your business events and updates. Additionally, a blog can define your brandas authoritative and help your business be seen as professional and knowledgeable.

Keys to Effective Team Leadership

Nearly 80 percent of Fortune 500 companies use some form of team-based structures within their daily operations to help in organizing work (Magni, & Maruping, 2013). A majority of employees are involved in teamwork as a part of their daily job duties and responsibilities (Magni, & Maruping, 2013). Leaders are responsible for broadening and elevating team members’ goals as well as creating team confidence (Ishikawa, 2012). The leader is also responsible for managing team conflicts, building relationships, engaging members, and taking responsibility for projects (Barnwell, Nedrick, Rudolph, Sesay, & Wellen, 2014). Leaders have a considerable impact on team members’ attitudes toward their jobs, team climate, and performance (Ishikawa, 2012). Team members must learn to self-direct and execute multiple tasks concurrently (Barnwell, Nedrick, Rudolph, Sesay, & Wellen, 2014). A team leader should begin management by setting a meeting with team members and have them introduce themselves to one another. This will allow members to build relationships and get to know one another on a personal level and in a comfortable setting (Barnwell, Nedrick, Rudolph, Sesay, & Wellen, 2014). As a leader, my role would be to establish a team that can work efficiently to satisfy stakeholders, customers, and team members (Barnwell, Nedrick, Rudolph, Sesay, & Wellen, 2014). I would build my team based on their strengths, and past performances. Conflict in time management and task priorities can affect the task schedule (Barnwell, Nedrick, Rudolph, Sesay, & Wellen, 2014; Ishikawa, 2012). Without proper leadership, there could be concern of power struggle within the group as new stronger members would likely take the lead role and potentially ignore the lower status individuals’ suggestions and ideas (Barnwell, Nedrick, Rudolph, Sesay, & Wellen, 2014; Hoch, & Morgeson, 2014). I would need to not only manage the needs of the team, but also of the individual members.

Within a team setting, team members should be able to react effectively to unanticipated, non-routine, and unstructured situations in order to achieve team objectives (Ishikawa, 2012). To manage an effective team, the leader should create a structure that allows for good and efficient communication, shared responsibilities, and proper goal and time management. Sharing leadership task can help build trust and cooperation among team members. By sharing task, members gain strength, motivation, and encouragement (Hoch, & Morgeson, 2014; Ishikawa, 2012). Time is paramount within a team setting. Being able to overcome barriers by reacting to task, unexpected issues, and delivering positive results are essential to achieving efficient outcomes (Ishikawa, 2012).

Project teams are composed of individual team members who have varying viewpoints. This is heightened in virtual teams where members are from different locations and with different cultures, beliefs, interest, time separation, distance, and standards (Barnwell, Nedrick, Rudolph, Sesay, & Wellen, 2014; Ishikawa, 2012). To keep up morale for virtual team members, I would have to remain in touch on a regular basis and build rapport with team members. It would be my responsibility to motivate members via telephone calls, and video conferencing, which could help decrease member isolation (Barnwell, Nedrick, Rudolph, Sesay, & Wellen, 2014). When working in a virtual team, culture and diversity can affect how the team functions (Barnwell, Nedrick, Rudolph, Sesay, & Wellen, 2014). Leaders interacting in diverse teams will be more susceptible to volatile relationships because of potential cultural misunderstandings. This is because diverse virtual team members can hold very different assumptions about mental modes and social interaction (Ayman, & Korabik, 2010; Barnwell, Nedrick, Rudolph, Sesay, & Wellen, 2014). In a virtual setting, the leader should create and manage clear goals, considering virtual team members are better led when goals and direction are clear (Barnwell, Nedrick, Rudolph, Sesay, & Wellen, 2014; Hoch, & Morgeson, 2014).

Virtual teams may have an issue of technology in addition to communication barriers (Balthazard, Waldman, & Warren, 2009; Barnwell, Nedrick, Rudolph, Sesay, & Wellen, 2014; Ishikawa, 2012). Having strong technical skills allows the member to minimize the need of outside technical assistance. Virtual team members should have high self-esteem so that they can support themselves through motivation and limit disrupting the other team members (Barnwell, Nedrick, Rudolph, Sesay, & Wellen, 2014). Reaching individual goals can be daunting, so being goal oriented will allow members to motivate themselves to go above and beyond when necessary to achieve their objectives (Barnwell, Nedrick, Rudolph, Sesay, & Wellen, 2014). Virtual teams and projects create increased response time for demands, greater productivity, and the option to work around the clock (Barnwell, Nedrick, Rudolph, Sesay, & Wellen, 2014; Ishikawa, 2012). However, team members who are located more than 50 feet away from one another, have a significantly decreased frequency of communication (Ishikawa, 2012). Being near one another, creates better circumstances for team members to communicate about issues that affect projects (Balthazard, Waldman, & Warren, 2009). Communication is a significant factor in team environments considering it is essential in helping gather information (Balthazard, Waldman, & Warren, 2009; Ishikawa, 2012). To overcome barriers, the team leader should influence members to have good technical skills, high self-esteem, be goal oriented, and not be afraid of friendly debate and admitting to mistakes (Barnwell, Nedrick, Rudolph, Sesay, & Wellen, 2014).

Ayman, R., & Korabik, K. (2010). Leadership. American Psychologist, 65(3), 157-170. doi:10.1037/a0018806

Balthazard, P. A., Waldman, D. A., & Warren, J. E. (2009). Predictors of the emergence of transformational leadership in virtual decision teams. Leadership Quarterly, 20(5), 651–663. doi:10.1016/j.leaqua.2009.06.008

Barnwell, D., Nedrick, S., Rudolph, E., Sesay, M., & Wellen, W. (2014). Leadership of International and Virtual Project Teams. International Journal Of Global Business, 7(2), 1-8.

Hoch, J. E., & Morgeson, F. P. (2014). Vertical and shared leadership processes: Exploring team leadership dynamics. Academy Of Management Annual Meeting Proceedings, 1607-1612. doi:10.5465/AMBPP.2014.96

Ishikawa, J. (2012). Transformational leadership and gatekeeping leadership: The roles of norm for maintaining consensus and shared leadership in team performance. Asia Pacific Journal Of Management, 29(2), 265-283. doi:10.1007/s10490-012-9282-z

Magni, M., & Maruping, L. M. (2013). Sink or Swim: Empowering Leadership and Overload in Teams’ Ability to Deal with the Unexpected. Human Resource Management, 52(5), 715-739. doi:10.1002/hrm.21561

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