Dallas Business Consultant Elijah ClarkDallas Business Consultant Elijah Clark

Organizational Stress: Positive or Negative?

I consider occupational stress negative and generated by a lack of productivity, which can be triggered in the work area by factors including disruptive technology, communication, and a competitive environment (Mitut, 2010). Stress is known to affect employees and employers’ ability to work efficiently (Mitut, 2010). Work overload, uncertainty of future employment, punishment, lack of feedback, and powerlessness are additional causes of stress and can lead to imbalances between employer and employee (Mitut, 2010; Selart, & Johansen, 2011).

Stressful organizational situations have a large negative impact particularly in situations that involve punishment and lack of rewards (Selart, & Johansen, 2011). Stress can cause decision makers to cut corners, become more prone to incidents, abuse, and deception (Selart, & Johansen, 2011). Several studies have connected stress to memory loss due to an increase in cortisol production. Moreover, employees can often respond to stress in a negative manner, and stress is known to lead to unethical decision making (Selart, & Johansen, 2011).

Data from a study conducted in 2003 by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions entitled “Working Conditions in the Acceding and Candidate Countries (Report)” explains that stress is the second largest health problem within work organizations, with 22% of organizational members reporting having been affected by occupational stress (Mitut, 2010).

The main causes of occupational stress according to Mitut (2010) are caused by:

  • Unstable conditions for work activity, which can cause job insecurity.
  • Dissatisfaction – common in crisis situations where job restructuring results in a higher level of stress.
  • Work hassle – dealing with situations that damage self-esteem and depression. Can be caused by violence and intimidation.
  • Imbalance of time – caused by work overload, which affects the time for personal desires and needs.
  • In addition to emotional stress, stress can generate high cost for an organizations (Mitut, 2010). Stress causes financial loss for organizations, as
  • well as absenteeism, decreased productivity, accidents, legal cost, medical expenses, and staff replacement (Mitut, 2010).

Organizational stress can be assessed by implementing stress management programs, which will teach employees techniques for preventing and coping with stressful situations (Mitut, 2010). Stress can be minimized by providing employees with roles that are clearly defined and encouraging communication between manager, employee and other departments (Mitut, 2010). Manager and employee meetings can also be implemented in order to discuss employee expectations, roles, and concerns. By promoting motivational strategies that influence esteem, security, social, and self-achievement, organizational members could feel less stressful within the work environment (Mitut, 2010).

I often experience organizational stress throughout my normal workday as a marketing consultant. However, I consider stress to be a normal part of my job and I have been able to adjust easily by simply taking a time-out. By putting the stressful task aside and doing some mental problem-solving, I tend to find solutions to my problems and release the stress by taking a break. A break could either be a walk outside to get fresh air, a nap, or simply getting away from my desk and pacing in my office. The goal for me is to remove stress by occupying my time and doing something other than the stressful task. In addition, I use similar techniques when dealing with stressful clients, outsourced workers, and businesses.

Success of an organizational depends on not disturbing occupational stresses that can create frustrations, low motivations, personal conflicts, dissatisfaction, and a drop in productivity (Mitut, 2010). The manager is responsible for reducing the effects of stress and creating an organization that is efficient and stress-free, and that focuses on maintaining and building the organizations performance (Mitut, 2010). As a manager, my role would be crucial in preventing stress. To properly control the climate of the organization, I would try to seek relationships with employees in order to better understand their personal stressors and work capabilities. It would be my responsibility to remain with a positive attitude and be a motivational influence to the employees. Being able to control the climate, I would need to create jobs that are compatible with employees and prevent work overload (Mitut, 2010).
Credits

Selart, M., & Johansen, S. (2011). Ethical Decision Making in Organizations: The Role of Leadership Stress. Journal Of Business Ethics, 99(2), 129-143. doi:10.1007/s10551-010-0649-0

Mitut, I. (2010). Managerial investment on organizational stress. Romanian Economic and Business Review, 5(3), 89–99. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1150119513?accountid=14872

Using CafePress.com to help Market your Business

Revenue Generation

The best way to build revenue with CafePress.com would by opening  a shop for your company. How revenue would be made is by selling products to customers with their company name and brand image on the products. Customers may also like to have their graphics printed on merchandise.


Building Online Community

How you could use your company and CafePress to build an online community is to create a shopping section on your company’s website with items that can be ranked by the users. Cafepress.com also has a network already built with users, which include rss feeds, social networking links and blogs. By joining your company into their already built community, it will help to expand your company brand name. Also by creating newsletters with product updates would help to build a network that merges cafepress.com and your brand.


Incentives, Rewards and Special Promotions

Your company could reward customers with special discounts or free products from our cafepress.com reseller store. A way to make this work would be to offer packages with graphic art work. An example would be a customer purchasing a new logo from your company. With that logo purchase, you can also offer specials and discounts on mugs, calendars, mouse pads and other products built through cafepress.com.


Viral and WOM marketing efforts

By getting involved with the current blog on cafepress.com and joining their social networking sites, your company could easily expand its brand name and image. Simply leaving comments and post within their already built community will easily expand the name of yourbrand through the networks of CafePress which are currently Facebook, MySpace, twitter, Flickr, YouTube and their own web blog.

Destroying your to-do list

As a business owner, are you among the 11% of people who finish their to-do lists each day? That’s right, only 11%. The real question is, why has the to-do list become such a menace to the other 89% of society?

I believe it’s because to-do lists inherently work against you. Without prioritization or context, they wreak havoc on your day — especially if you’re running a business or overseeing teams of people.

And speaking of those people… if you’re a leader or supervisor of any kind, your team needs you. But in all likelihood, they are also constantly interrupting you. So are all those dings from your smartphone. (Let’s not even get started on your email inbox!)

Your clients and investors should be getting your time, but a mountain of priority-less interruptions and to-dos are getting it instead. That needs to change; I want to show you how it can.

You literally cannot afford for your productivity to be held down by ineffective tools or held back by distractions. You don’t need to destroy your to-do lists. You just need to redeem them and get back to the real work of your business.

Leader-Member Exchange

Leader-member exchange is when a relationship is created between task behavior and relationship behavior (Graeff, 1997). Leader-member exchange originates from research and literature on transformational leadership. The formalization of the Leader-member Exchange theory stems from “Vertical Dyad Linkage (VDL), a notion developed by Dansereau, Graen, and Haga in 1975, with their paper, “A Vertical Dyad approach to leadership within formal organizations”  (Avolio, Walumbwa, & Weber, 2009). Leader-member exchange theory asserts that relationships between leader and follower will likely motivate followers to commit to organizations and leaders’ goals. This type of leadership is said to potentially elevate knowledge sharing between leader and follower. Leader-member exchange and knowledge sharing are considered to be positively linked with creative work involvement. In business, employees tend to enjoy a leader-member exchange relationship with high-quality. This type of leadership allows employees to engage in open and creative work processes and encourages climate perceptions (Hassanzadeh, 2014). A leader-member exchange relationship requires both leader and follower to agree and accept shared goals that will fulfill mutual interest (Graen, & Uhl-Bien, 1995; Hassanzadeh, 2014).

Leader-member exchange theory focuses on the relationship between the leader and follower (Northouse, 2013). The theory is that followers and leaders develop exchange relationships that positively alter the impact of organizational outcomes. A leader-member exchange occurs when leaders and followers develop a relationship that results in mutual interest being satisfied (Avolio, Walumbwa, & Weber, 2009). Within organizations, there are considered hierarchy’s labeled as in-group and out-groups. The groups are determined by how well the leader and follower work together. Followers that are favored by the leader are placed into the in-group, and followers that are not favored by the leader our placed within the out-group. To become favored, the follower must express their organizational dedication to the leader by exchanging activities that go beyond the normal job description (Northouse, 2013, p. 163). A leader-member exchange relationship is not designed to intentionally create inequalities. However, the style and favor system has created a questionable situation. (Northouse, 2013, p. 171)

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