Dallas Business Consultant Elijah ClarkDallas Business Consultant Elijah Clark

Market Efficiency Theory

Market Efficiency Theory
Market efficiency was formulated by Eugene Fama in 1970, labeled as efficient market hypothesis. His theory suggests that stock and market value are based on publicly available information. Investors invest with the goal that their investment will generate a positive return on their investment. An efficient capital market is when a stock price reflects publicly available information that may affect the stocks value, which could benefit investors. Efficient markets generate random patterns that cannot be predicted, and an investor cannot factually predict a stock value with secretive information.

Less Efficient U.S. Markets
Markets are much more inefficient than they used to be, and unreliable information could cause investors to receive inefficient values. If markets are unreliable, the value could potential plummet and non-informed investors may not be interested in purchasing new stock. Furthermore, An inefficient market would likely be placing a market value above or below its true value. An inefficient market creates unfair advantages for certain investors who would not otherwise have access to the company’s information. Markets become less efficient often due to greed, economic involvement, negligence, and lack of communication.

Markets in Other Countries
Many studies have found that market prices are difficult to predict. Compared to the United States, other countries also have problems with market inefficiency. Market efficiency asserts that there is no pattern or trends that can be used to predict future value. In the Indian capital market for instance, market inefficiency exist that contradict the efficient market hypothesis. A study, which examined a calendar anomaly within the stock market; found that stocks often held until after the New Year present a higher return rate, and that Monday is considered the worst day of the week to invest. While this isn’t considered inside information, it does create a predictable trend that creates a level of efficiency to use in predicting market trends and potential.

Finding efficiency within the stock market may seem fairly simple with the use of technology and cheap software tools that can find patterns within stock prices. However, the reality is that there is no way in determining the direction of a stock by using computer technology or human assumptions. In addition, if exploits did exist, they would be found and corrected to prevent future defrauding.

With the efficiency market hypothesis, the securities will always reflect the available public information. No system, tool, calculation, or individual investor has access to secret information that would help them generate a rate of return above others. Consequently, investors should always expect to receive a fair value for their securities.

To determine the direction of a stock, investors must be skilled at analyzing data, predicting stocks, and have the ability to comprehend statistics and understand the stocks industries. To achieve this, it takes an investor that is passionate and has the time to evaluate the market.

In addition to rationality, independent deviations from rationality, and arbitrage, t he efficiency market hypothesis makes the assumption that there are three levels of market efficiency’s. The three levels assume that the value of an investment should reflect all available information. Prices should change based only on publicly unexpected information. The hypothesis is considered a model based on how markets tend to work and not how they should work. The three levels of market efficiency include strong, semi-strong, and weak (Maguire, 2010; Ross, Westerfield, & Jaffe, 2013). The weak level of efficiency does not base it results on reliable data such as earnings, forecast, or company announcements. However, they are often random and based on mathematical assumptions relating to historical data. A market is considered semi-strong if it can be predicted by using publicly available information. Information that helps predict a market using a semi-strong efficiency level includes information regarding accounting statements, and historical data. The strong efficiency level uses all publicly and privately available information to determine a stocks value.

Insider trading behavior is affected by expected trading profits from private information, and potential litigation risk. Managers tend to avoid trading before company disclosures so that they may avoid litigation risk. To reduce the probability of litigation, managers provide higher quality disclosures before insider trading. Furthermore, to avoid litigation, insiders often avoid profitable trades before earnings announcements, but will trade after the announcement in an attempt to profit from their future earnings based on the announcement.

A marketing strategy to grow your business

Marketing plans are crucial for starting and growing a business. A good marketing plan will help your business identify your target customers, and generate a plan to reach and retain those customers. The marketing plan is the roadmap to gain customers and improve organizational success if done properly.

Additionally, the plan describes the desired customer by targeting their precise needs based on their demographic profiles. This is helpful for identifying targeted customers and creating pinpointed advertisement aimed directly at those prospective customers.

An additional crucial point of the marketing plan is its plan of distribution. The distribution plan details how customers will purchase or buy into the organization. The promotional strategy of the plan is considered one of the most important sections of the plan. The promotional strategy details how new customers are to be reached.

Examples of an effective promotional strategy include distribution and promotional tactics on television, at trade shows, and through online advertising. A marketing plan includes everything from understanding the desired customer, to determining how to outperform and strategize the competition. A marketing plan is paramount to achieving business success and the time taken to develop a marketing plan, is an investment worth making considering it defines who to connect with customers and generate sales.

Creating a professional brand image

Creating a professional image

A good graphic artist will understand that business logos are not just for multi-national corporations. Graphics are for any enterprise that wants to present a professional image and customer recognition for a job (otherwise known as branding).

Your logo works for you on your business cards, stationery for your company, invoices and receipts, your business’ publications, and of course ads. A good business logo design helps your customers remember your business and many people remember images better than they remember the words.

Decision Support Systems

A Decision Support Systems (DDS) assist in reducing time needed in manual searching of information. DSS gives the ability for results to be returned at faster than human speeds. DSS is a flexible interactive IT system designed to assist non-structured decision making problems. Advantages of DSS include, increased productivity, understanding, speed, flexibility, and reduced cost. DSSs are information systems that support decision-making processes. Objective of DSSs is to enhance the effectiveness of decision-makers. Functions that DSS assist with include data storage, retrieval, manipulation, and small calculations. A crucial point of DSS is its ability to react to changes and situations quickly. DSS can be used to assist in solving many different promising diverse alternatives to problems.
 
DSS is when an individual performs decision related task. The goal of DSSs is to assist the decision maker in improving their effectiveness. Enhancing the decision maker’s insights and knowledge does this. Decision-making is dependent upon knowing past, present, and likely future situations. Information systems should have the ability to forecast the future based on probability.
 
Often a DSS will incorporate an expert system (ES). While a DSS requires the decision maker to have knowledge and expertise about the situation, an ES only requires facts and symptoms to provide solutions to problems. In a replacement role, an ES helps with improving efficiency of decision makers. ES tools are used to mainly support and assist with problems and not replace the decision maker. ES is a system that assists with reaching conclusions based on reasoning. These types of systems are useful for diagnostic and prescriptive type problems. In a support role, an ES can be known as an expert advisory. DSS generally has three components: model management, data management, and user interface management. Model management provides information to the decision makers. Data management assists with customer and product information. User interface management helps the decision makers access the information. ES tools, if used to replace human decision makers, have been shown to be just as effective, if not better than a human. Organizations should not rely on ES tools to improve the efficiency of the decision maker. 
 
The marketing firm that I am researching could use DSS to analyze its customer marketing performance and create effective strategies based on that information. Considering the organization uses tracking and monitoring tools to view its customer data, it should use DSS to highlight opportunities for each unique customer. Currently, its customers each have similar goals and processes that are used to generate sales. However, with implementing DSS, it could help in developing unique plans and goals for the customers instead of one universal marketing method. 

Delete / Remove Photos in iCloud Photo Stream

 

So you took a picture you shouldn’t have on your iphone and now its on all of your iDevices and Computers. What to do now considering you can’t delete images from a cloud? Well, you can. Its not as simple as highlighting and deleting, but its pretty simple. Follow the instructions below in order to delete photos from your iCloud and photo stream… and stop taking pictures you dont want showing up on your apple TV when your parents come to visit.

Side note: I just launched my Facebook Fan Page, Please click the “Like” button on the right

 

First: Delete from iCloud:

1. go to iCloud.com and login

2. click on your name in the upper right corner

3. click “Advanced” tab

4. reset photo stream

 

The above will remove it from iCloud. in order to delete from your device do the following.

  Read more

Economic and Perceived Value Pricing

Real and Perceived Value
The price of a product is reflected based on the financial needs for growth and operation of the company, in addition to consumers’ perceived value of the product. Businesses have a goal of making a profit, which often requires selling items at a perceived value. Real and perceived values are different ways in which products are valued, which are generally based on economic impacts and competition. In addition, the relevancy to the consumer determines the value of the product. If the product or message is not relevant or does not affect the consumer personally, it will not be as effective as if it did.

Advantages and Disadvantages
Value pricing allows companies to influence consumer purchases by offering lower prices for competitive products. Real value is generally easier to measure than perceived value. Factors that increase the value of real value include the cost of labor, materials, marketing, shipping, and product development. Product distribution, marketing efforts, and brand value determine the products perceived value. For example if two competitors are to sell the exact same item, built exactly the same way, and from the same materials, it is likely that the company with the better brand value reputation can sell the item at a higher price because of the perceived value by the consumer. If the consumer perceives the value of the product high, the consumer will likely show more interest. The consumers’ perception of the company’s customer support, trust, loyalty, and product quality determine the products value.

Services and Products
Value pricing attracts value conscious customers. The actual cost of the product production determines the real values. In addition, the real value depends on the usefulness of the product to the consumer as well as the value of the product components. Perceived value is based on how much money the consumer or business believes the product is worth. It is the marketer’s responsibility to generate a positive perceived value of the company’s products. Whether marketing a service or a product, the results are similar in that both rely on the consumers’ perception of the company’s or individual’s expertise, quality, and reputation. In addition, both products and services have other components necessary to complete certain task. While a product may have additional parts and components, a service technician or company is likely to have to purchase tools, software, and other items necessary to complete the service.

Perceived value for individuals looking to invest into higher education tremendously affects the institutions price. Students and family perceive the value of the institution to be within the quality of the education. Consequently, the higher the perceived value of quality, the higher the cost of tuition. Research, however, has not proven a correlation between institutional cost and actual quality. Perceived value of an institution does correlate a student’s likelihood of enrollment. Perceived value of an education has three main factors, which include, quality, cost, and emotional attachment. Failing to satisfy either of these could jeopardize the student’s enrollment potential, as it will affect the students perceived value.

In marketing, generating excitement can also generate a sale and loyal customer. If a user is excited about a product, they may ignore the cost and quality factor. To enroll students into an institution, the marketing and sales team should seek to expose students to information and experiences that excites them and builds passion for the brand.

Real and perceived value offers many benefits to businesses and consumers. The impact of marketing and social networks real and perceived value in regards to marketing efforts is hard to determine. For instance, LinkedIn is a social network that is said to build business networks and promote expertise. However, it is difficult for a user to determine the real value of a paid account, free account, or whether the service is actually making a difference and producing what its purposed to do.

The LinkedIn site is available in 20 languages, and has 238 million users globally. The Internet-based service is similar to a Rolodex of business contacts. As a user, the platform may be a good place to build a brand, increase online visibility, and grow a professional network. It is the users responsibility to determine what the real value of the LinkedIn platform is based on their needs. Although the real value may be worth the free account, the perceived value could be priceless if the user uses the platform to truly build a network and search for a new career.

If an individual truly believes in the quality and value of a product or service, then the perceived value becomes more valuable than the real value. Online platforms, website, and social networking sites work just as traditional products and services regarding real and perceived value.

Business Crisis Management

Definition of crisis management

A crisis management is the way that a person or business handles an emergency. In a family, this could be a member having to suddenly go to the hospital because of an accident. In a business, a crisis can be anything from a defective product recall or an economic change that causes a drop in sales.

How crisis management relates to business

Within the marketing industry, having the ability to understand and react promptly when crisis arises is crucial for maintaining the businesses market share, trust, and reputation. Not managing a crisis properly can have the potential to damage carefully developed equity, and spoil consumers’ quality perception (Chen, Ganesan, & Liu, 2009).

Personal experience with crisis management

As an online marketer, I run into crisis management issues oftentimes on a weekly basis. Each week I monitor my clients websites ranking through analyzing Yahoo, Bing, and Google search engines for algorithm changes. It’s normal for search engines to change their algorithm and I do advise my clients that their website rank may change drastically if such a change occurs that may affect their website. Once this happens, a site that previously ranked on the first page could drop out of the search engine completed. As this occurs, It usually causes a loss in site traffic and sales. The solution to this is for me to research and analyze the issue, check whether it’s a search engine issue or a website issue and then correct or explain to the client that recovery is impossible.

Summary of About the Crisis Marketing and The Crisis of Marketing

This article focuses on the global economic-financial marketing crisis. According to the article, marketing may be just the solution for many companies to get out of the crisis, but what is sadder is that a lot of them do not realize it (Cornelia & Mihaela, 2011). The article tackles the subject of why marketing is needed within a failing economy and how to successfully implement new strategies to help increase and sustain profit and productivity.

Avoiding negative impacts of a crisis

Research has indicated that a proactive strategy may have positive consequences on consumer perception if the crisis is responded to with a constant, active, and firm response (Chen, Ganesan, & Liu, 2009). The business being affected should respond quickly to the crisis and should focus their attention on building and strengthening consumer trust. During a crisis, marketing strategies should be analyzed and focus on resonating emotionally with the consumer through a human, friendly language (Cornelia & Mihaela, 2011). Without proactively managing the crisis, the risk of negative impact rises.

 

Credits

Cornelia, M., & Mihaela, B. (2011). ABOUT THE CRISIS MARKETING AND THE CRISIS OF MARKETING. Journal Of Academic Research In Economics, 3(3), 311-316.

Chen, Y, Ganesan, S., & Liu, Y. (2009). Does a firm’s product-recall strategy affect its financial value? An examination of strategic alternatives during product-harm crises. Journal of Marketing, 73(6), 214–226.

Content Management Systems CMS

Stay Updated With a CMS

With some websites, having fresh content is mandatory to gain new and repeat clients. With a Content Management System (CMS), you can keep your site updated with the latest news articles, products, and services. You have full control over what you want to put on and take off your site.

Updating:

Your website needs to be easily upgraded with new content on a regular basis. A CMS gives you full control so that you can easily add new updates and blogs to your website without having to call a programmer to do it for you.

Results:

All content can be managed through a simple user interface that allows for quick task completion. The Administration area is easy for all to use, and can involve multiple access levels for various management controls.

With a CMS, you can easily implement and manage:

  • Article publishing
  • Website forums
  • Photo galleries
  • Surveys and polls
  • Projects
  • Interactive event calendars
  • Complex data entry forms

Matching user personas to Adwords campaign

Competitive:

Professional Web Design

Beat out your competition.

Build a successful online brand.

The competitive persona will be looking for a company that knows what they are doing. This ad shows that we are a professional company and we know how to help them get to the top of their industry.

Humanistic:

Affordable Web Design

Stay connected with your customers.

We have a plan to help you succeed.

This ad will be great for the humanistic persona as it explains to them that they will be able to stay connected with their customers online. It also shows that they can contact us and we will speak with them to come up with a plan for their company’s success. “Affordable web design” will be their search word, as they normally don’t like large companies due to them not being relationship oriented. This ad is designed to create comfort and ease. 

Methodical:

Professional Web Design

Proven success stories

100% Satisfaction Guaranteed

I chose the “professional web design” headline to draw in the methodical personality because it shows that its not a freelance or amateur company. By also mentioning proven success and 100% satisfaction, this user will be likely to visit the website and view the portfolio and testimonial section of other customers. Providing money back will also provide further proof that we are trustworthy and customer friendly.

Spontaneous:

Affordable Web Design Offer!

Low cost web designs

Get started on your website TODAY!

This headline was used to draw in the spontaneous persona, as they are normally looking for easy, fast and affordability. They want quick answers and this add shows that we are affordable, easy and that they can get the answer they are looking for fast.

Push Email on iPhone/iPad/Mac/iOS Devices

Because I seem to be the only person that understands how to get true imap push email notifications on an apple device, I decided to share the how to. This tutorial will give instructions on how to get push emails (that mens your emails will arrive in less than 5 seconds after its sent from a third party). The trick here is a combination of using your iCloud @me account and your IMAP or Domain Email account. I’m sure you may already know how to forward your email, but this tutorial will explain how to also send and reply from your @me account while using your IMAP/domain name.

First make sure to sign up for an @me account and forward your IMAP account to your @me account. (don’t ask me how, Google it or ask your email hosting company)

1. Delete any email account you already have setup.
2. Setup a @me account if you dont already have one.
3. On your ios device go to settings.
4. Click icloud, sign in and make sure that “mail” is turned off.
5. Click “mail, contact, calendars”
6. Click “add account” and enter account info for imap account and click “other”
7. Click “add mail account” and enter iCloud/me account info and click “next”
8. For incoming mail server, use host name: imap.mail.me.com >> enter @me email address and password.
9. For outgoing mail server, enter your imap account info.
10. Click next and make sure everything is checked for approval.
11. go back to the account screen and under “IMAP Account Information” where it says “Name, Email and Description” remove the @me email address and replace with your imap email address and save settings and get out of settings.

If the above doesn’t work, then go back and check to make sure everything stuck.

The end result is that you will be able to send, receive and reply from your imap account all while also getting push notifications.

You can also do the same thing on your iMac or Macbook or MacBook Air mail app.

The thing to understand is that the incoming mail server must be your @me account and the outgoing server must be your IMAP account.

If you have trouble, just be sure to read these instructions carefully and try again. You may have to remove your email accounts and redo them at first. Be sure to disable mail from your iCloud settings as well.

Feel free to ask questions below, but make sure you first carefull read the instructions. 

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